Workshop: 2nd ICML Workshop on Machine Learning for Astrophysics

Harnessing the Power of Adversarial Prompting and Large Language Models for Robust Hypothesis Generation in Astronomy

Ioana Ciuca · Yuan-Sen Ting · Sandor Kruk · Kartheik Iyer


This study investigates the application of Large Language Models (LLMs), specifically GPT-4, within Astronomy. We employ in-context prompting, supplying the model with up to 1000 papers from the NASA Astrophysics Data System, to explore the extent to which performance can be improved by immersing the model in domain-specific literature. Our findings point towards a substantial boost in hypothesis generation when using in-context prompting, a benefit that is further accentuated by adversarial prompting. We illustrate how adversarial prompting empowers GPT-4 to extract essential details from a vast knowledge base to produce meaningful hypotheses, signaling an innovative step towards employing LLMs for scientific research in Astronomy.

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