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Towards Unbiased Training in Federated Open-world Semi-supervised Learning

Jie ZHANG · Xiaosong Ma · Song Guo · Wenchao Xu

Exhibit Hall 1 #505
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Federated Semi-supervised Learning (FedSSL) has emerged as a new paradigm for allowing distributed clients to collaboratively train a machine learning model over scarce labeled data and abundant unlabeled data. However, existing works for FedSSL rely on a closed-world assumption that all local training data and global testing data are from seen classes observed in the labeled dataset. It is crucial to go one step further: adapting FL models to an open-world setting, where unseen classes exist in the unlabeled data. In this paper, we propose a novel Federatedopen-world Semi-Supervised Learning (FedoSSL) framework, which can solve the key challenge in distributed and open-world settings, i.e., the biased training process for heterogeneously distributed unseen classes. Specifically, since the advent of a certain unseen class depends on a client basis, the locally unseen classes (exist in multiple clients) are likely to receive differentiated superior aggregation effects than the globally unseen classes (exist only in one client). We adopt an uncertainty-aware suppressed loss to alleviate the biased training between locally unseen and globally unseen classes. Besides, we enable a calibration module supplementary to the global aggregation to avoid potential conflicting knowledge transfer caused by inconsistent data distribution among different clients. The proposed FedoSSL can be easily adapted to state-of-the-art FL methods, which is also validated via extensive experiments on benchmarks and real-world datasets (CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and CINIC-10).

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