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$\pi$-Tuning: Transferring Multimodal Foundation Models with Optimal Multi-task Interpolation

CHENGYUE WU · Teng Wang · Yixiao Ge · Zeyu Lu · Ruisong Zhou · Ying Shan · Ping Luo

Exhibit Hall 1 #316

Abstract: Foundation models have achieved great advances in multi-task learning with a unified interface of unimodal and multimodal tasks. However, the potential of such multi-task learners has not been exploited during transfer learning. In this work, we present a universal parameter-efficient transfer learning method, termed Predict-Interpolate Tuning ($\pi$-Tuning), for vision, language, and vision-language tasks. It aggregates the parameters of lightweight task-specific experts learned from similar tasks to aid the target downstream task. The task similarities are predicted in a unified modality-independent space, yielding a scalable graph to demonstrate task relationships. $\pi$-Tuning has several appealing benefits. First, it flexibly explores both intra- and inter-modal transferability between similar tasks to improve the accuracy and robustness of transfer learning, especially in data-scarce scenarios. Second, it offers a systematical solution for transfer learning with multi-task prediction-and-then-interpolation, compatible with diverse types of parameter-efficient experts, such as prompt and adapter. Third, an extensive study of task-level mutual benefits on 14 unimodal and 6 multimodal datasets shows that $\pi$-Tuning surpasses fine-tuning and other parameter-efficient transfer learning methods both in full-shot and low-shot regimes. The task graph also enables an in-depth interpretable analysis of task transferability across modalities. The code will be available at

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