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QAS-Bench: Rethinking Quantum Architecture Search and A Benchmark

Xudong Lu · Kaisen Pan · Ge Yan · Jiaming Shan · Wenjie Wu · Junchi Yan

Exhibit Hall 1 #640
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Automatic quantum architecture search (QAS) has been widely studied across disciplines with different implications. In this paper, beyond a particular domain, we formulate the QAS problem into two basic (and relatively even ideal) tasks: i) arbitrary quantum circuit (QC) regeneration given a target QC; ii) approximating an arbitrary unitary (oracle). The latter can be connected to the setting of various quantum machine learning tasks and other QAS applications. Based on these two tasks, we generate a public QAS benchmark including 900 random QCs and 400 random unitary matrices which is still missing in the literature. We evaluate six baseline algorithms including brute force search, simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, reinforcement learning, hybrid algorithm, and differentiable algorithm as part of our benchmark. One characteristic of our proposed evaluation protocol on the basic tasks is that it deprives the domain-specific designs and techniques as used in existing QAS literature, making a unified evaluation possible and focusing on the vanilla search methods themselves without coupling with domain prior. In fact, the unitary approximation task could be algorithmically more difficult than the specific problems as it needs to explore the whole matrix space to fit the unitary. While specific tasks often only need to fit a partial observation of the unitary as the objective for search. Data and code are available at

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