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In or Out? Fixing ImageNet Out-of-Distribution Detection Evaluation

Julian Bitterwolf · Maximilian Müller · Matthias Hein

Exhibit Hall 1 #610
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Abstract: Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is the problem of identifying inputs which are unrelated to the in-distribution task. The OOD detection performance when the in-distribution (ID) is ImageNet-1K is commonly being tested on a small range of test OOD datasets. We find that most of the currently used test OOD datasets, including datasets from the open set recognition (OSR) literature, have severe issues: In some cases more than 50$\%$ of the dataset contains objects belonging to one of the ID classes. These erroneous samples heavily distort the evaluation of OOD detectors. As a solution, we introduce with NINCO a novel test OOD dataset, each sample checked to be ID free, which with its fine-grained range of OOD classes allows for a detailed analysis of an OOD detector's strengths and failure modes, particularly when paired with a number of synthetic “OOD unit-tests”. We provide detailed evaluations across a large set of architectures and OOD detection methods on NINCO and the unit-tests, revealing new insights about model weaknesses and the effects of pretraining on OOD detection performance. We provide code and data at

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