Moderator: Smita Krishnaswamy
Yuanbang Liang · Jing Wu · Yu-Kun Lai · Yipeng Qin
Despite the extensive studies on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), how to reliably sample high-quality images from their latent spaces remains an under-explored topic. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN latent sampling method by exploring and exploiting the hubness priors of GAN latent distributions. Our key insight is that the high dimensionality of the GAN latent space will inevitably lead to the emergence of hub latents that usually have much larger sampling densities than other latents in the latent space. As a result, these hub latents are better trained and thus contribute more to the synthesis of high-quality images. Unlike the a posterior "cherry-picking", our method is highly efficient as it is an a priori method that identifies high-quality latents before the synthesis of images. Furthermore, we show that the well-known but purely empirical truncation trick is a naive approximation to the central clustering effect of hub latents, which not only uncovers the rationale of the truncation trick, but also indicates the superiority and fundamentality of our method. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our code is available at: https://github.com/Byronliang8/HubnessGANSampling.
Chenlin Meng · Linqi Zhou · Kristy Choi · Tri Dao · Stefano Ermon
Normalizing flows model complex probability distributions using maps obtained by composing invertible layers. Special linear layers such as masked and 1×1 convolutions play a key role in existing architectures because they increase expressive power while having tractable Jacobians and inverses. We propose a new family of invertible linear layers based on butterfly layers, which are known to theoretically capture complex linear structures including permutations and periodicity, yet can be inverted efficiently. This representational power is a key advantage of our approach, as such structures are common in many real-world datasets. Based on our invertible butterfly layers, we construct a new class of normalizing flow mod- els called ButterflyFlow. Empirically, we demonstrate that ButterflyFlows not only achieve strong density estimation results on natural images such as MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet-32×32, but also obtain significantly better log-likelihoods on structured datasets such as galaxy images and MIMIC-III patient cohorts—all while being more efficient in terms of memory and computation than relevant baselines.
Tomasz Korbak · Hady Elsahar · Germán Kruszewski · Marc Dymetman
Machine learning is shifting towards general-purpose pretrained generative models, trained in a self-supervised manner on large amounts of data, which can then be applied to solve a large number of tasks.However, due to their generic training methodology, these models often fail to meet some of the downstream requirements (e.g., hallucinations in abstractive summarization or style violations in code generation). This raises the important question of how to adapt pre-trained generative models to meet all requirements without destroying their general capabilities ("catastrophic forgetting"). Recent work has proposed to solve this problem by representing task-specific requirements through energy-based models (EBMs) and approximating these EBMs using distributional policy gradients (DPG). Despite its effectiveness, this approach is however limited to unconditional distributions. In this paper, we extend DPG to conditional tasks by proposing Conditional DPG (CDPG). We evaluate CDPG on four different control objectives across three tasks (translation, summarization and code generation) and two pretrained models (T5 and GPT-Neo). Our results show that fine-tuning using CDPG robustly moves these pretrained models closer towards meeting control objectives and --- in contrast with baseline approaches --- does not result in catastrophic forgetting.
Alexander Nichol · Prafulla Dhariwal · Aditya Ramesh · Pranav Shyam · Pamela Mishkin · Bob McGrew · Ilya Sutskever · Mark Chen
Diffusion models have recently been shown to generate high-quality synthetic images, especially when paired with a guidance technique to trade off diversity for fidelity. We explore diffusion models for the problem of text-conditional image synthesis and compare two different guidance strategies: CLIP guidance and classifier-free guidance. We find that the latter is preferred by human evaluators for both photorealism and caption similarity, and often produces photorealistic samples. Samples from a 3.5~billion parameter text-conditional diffusion model using classifier-free guidance are favored by human evaluators to those from DALL-E, even when the latter uses expensive CLIP reranking. Additionally, we find that our models can be fine-tuned to perform image inpainting, enabling powerful text-driven image editing. We train a smaller model on a filtered dataset and release the code and weights at https://github.com/openai/glide-text2im.
Jeremiah Birrell · Markos Katsoulakis · Luc Rey-Bellet · Wei Zhu
Generative adversarial networks (GANs), a class of distribution-learning methods based on a two-player game between a generator and a discriminator, can generally be formulated as a minmax problem based on the variational representation of a divergence between the unknown and the generated distributions. We introduce structure-preserving GANs as a data-efficient framework for learning distributions with additional structure such as group symmetry, by developing new variational representations for divergences. Our theory shows that we can reduce the discriminator space to its projection on the invariant discriminator space, using the conditional expectation with respect to the sigma-algebra associated to the underlying structure. In addition, we prove that the discriminator space reduction must be accompanied by a careful design of structured generators, as flawed designs may easily lead to a catastrophic “mode collapse” of the learned distribution. We contextualize our framework by building symmetry-preserving GANs for distributions with intrinsic group symmetry, and demonstrate that both players, namely the equivariant generator and invariant discriminator, play important but distinct roles in the learning process. Empirical experiments and ablation studies across a broad range of data sets, including real-world medical imaging, validate our theory, and show our proposed methods achieve significantly improved sample fidelity and diversity---almost an order of magnitude measured in Frechet Inception Distance---especially in the small data regime.
Samyam Rajbhandari · Conglong Li · Zhewei Yao · Minjia Zhang · Reza Yazdani Aminabadi · Ammar Ahmad Awan · Jeff Rasley · Yuxiong He
As the training of giant dense models hits the boundary on the availability and capability of the hardware resources today, Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) models have become one of the most promising model architectures due to their significant training cost reduction compared to quality-equivalent dense models. Their training cost saving is demonstrated from encoder-decoder models (prior works) to a 5x saving for auto-aggressive language models (this work). However, due to the much larger model size and unique architecture, how to provide fast MoE model inference remains challenging and unsolved, limiting their practical usage. To tackle this, we present DeepSpeed-MoE, an end-to-end MoE training and inference solution, including novel MoE architecture designs and model compression techniques that reduce MoE model size by up to 3.7x, and a highly optimized inference system that provides 7.3x better latency and cost compared to existing MoE inference solutions. DeepSpeed-MoE offers an unprecedented scale and efficiency to serve massive MoE models with up to 4.5x faster and 9x cheaper inference compared to quality-equivalent dense models. We hope our innovations and systems help open a promising path to new directions in the large model landscape, a shift from dense to sparse MoE models, where training and deploying higher-quality models with fewer resources becomes more widely possible.
Fan Bao · Chongxuan Li · Jiacheng Sun · Jun Zhu · Bo Zhang
Diffusion probabilistic models (DPMs) are a class of powerful deep generative models (DGMs). Despite their success, the iterative generation process over the full timesteps is much less efficient than other DGMs such as GANs. Thus, the generation performance on a subset of timesteps is crucial, which is greatly influenced by the covariance design in DPMs. In this work, we consider diagonal and full covariances to improve the expressive power of DPMs. We derive the optimal result for such covariances, and then correct it when the mean of DPMs is imperfect. Both the optimal and the corrected ones can be decomposed into terms of conditional expectations over functions of noise. Building upon it, we propose to estimate the optimal covariance and its correction given imperfect mean by learning these conditional expectations. Our method can be applied to DPMs with both discrete and continuous timesteps. We consider the diagonal covariance in our implementation for computational efficiency. For an efficient practical implementation, we adopt a parameter sharing scheme and a two-stage training process. Empirically, our method outperforms a wide variety of covariance design on likelihood results, and improves the sample quality especially on a small number of timesteps.
Emiel Hoogeboom · Victor Garcia Satorras · Clément Vignac · Max Welling
This work introduces a diffusion model for molecule generation in 3D that is equivariant to Euclidean transformations. Our E(3) Equivariant Diffusion Model (EDM) learns to denoise a diffusion process with an equivariant network that jointly operates on both continuous (atom coordinates) and categorical features (atom types). In addition, we provide a probabilistic analysis which admits likelihood computation of molecules using our model. Experimentally, the proposed method significantly outperforms previous 3D molecular generative methods regarding the quality of generated samples and the efficiency at training time.
Zhichun Huang · Rudrasis Chakraborty · Vikas Singh
Generative models which use explicit density modeling (e.g., variational autoencoders, flow-based generative models) involve finding a mapping from a known distribution, e.g. Gaussian, to the unknown input distribution. This often requires searching over a class of non-linear functions (e.g., representable by a deep neural network). While effective in practice, the associated runtime/memory costs can increase rapidly, usually as a function of the performance desired in an application. We propose a substantially cheaper (and simpler) forward operator estimation strategy based on adapting known results on kernel transfer operators. We show that our formulation enables highly efficient distribution approximation and sampling, and offers surprisingly good empirical performance that compares favorably with powerful baselines, but with significant runtime savings. We show that the algorithm also performs well in small sample size settings (in brain imaging).
Liang Hou · Qi Cao · Huawei Shen · Siyuan Pan · Xiaoshuang Li · Xueqi Cheng
Conditional generative models aim to learn the underlying joint distribution of data and labels to achieve conditional data generation. Among them, the auxiliary classifier generative adversarial network (AC-GAN) has been widely used, but suffers from the problem of low intra-class diversity of the generated samples. The fundamental reason pointed out in this paper is that the classifier of AC-GAN is generator-agnostic, which therefore cannot provide informative guidance for the generator to approach the joint distribution, resulting in a minimization of the conditional entropy that decreases the intra-class diversity. Motivated by this understanding, we propose a novel conditional GAN with an auxiliary discriminative classifier (ADC-GAN) to resolve the above problem. Specifically, the proposed auxiliary discriminative classifier becomes generator-aware by recognizing the class-labels of the real data and the generated data discriminatively. Our theoretical analysis reveals that the generator can faithfully learn the joint distribution even without the original discriminator, making the proposed ADC-GAN robust to the value of the coefficient hyperparameter and the selection of the GAN loss, and stable during training. Extensive experimental results on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of ADC-GAN in conditional generative modeling compared to state-of-the-art classifier-based and projection-based conditional GANs.
Rakshith Subramanyam · Vivek Narayanaswamy · Mark Naufel · Andreas Spanias · Jayaraman J. Thiagarajan
Inverting an image onto the latent space of pre-trained generators, e.g., StyleGAN-v2, has emerged as a popular strategy to leverage strong image priors for ill-posed restoration. Several studies have showed that this approach is effective at inverting images similar to the data used for training. However, with out-of-distribution (OOD) data that the generator has not been exposed to, existing inversion techniques produce sub-optimal results. In this paper, we propose SPHInX (StyleGAN with Projection Heads for Inverting X), an approach for accurately embedding OOD images onto the StyleGAN latent space. SPHInX optimizes a style projection head using a novel training strategy that imposes a vicinal regularization in the StyleGAN latent space. To further enhance OOD inversion, SPHInX can additionally optimize a content projection head and noise variables in every layer. Our empirical studies on a suite of OOD data show that, in addition to producing higher quality reconstructions over the state-of-the-art inversion techniques, SPHInX is effective for ill-posed restoration tasks while offering semantic editing capabilities.
Heli Ben-Hamu · samuel cohen · Joey Bose · Brandon Amos · Maximilian Nickel · Aditya Grover · Ricky T. Q. Chen · Yaron Lipman
Continuous Normalizing Flows (CNFs) are a class of generative models that transform a prior distribution to a model distribution by solving an ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose to train CNFs on manifolds by minimizing probability path divergence (PPD), a novel family of divergences between the probability density path generated by the CNF and a target probability density path. PPD is formulated using a logarithmic mass conservation formula which is a linearfirst order partial differential equation relating the log target probabilities and the CNF’s defining vector field. PPD has several key benefits over existing methods: it sidesteps the need to solve an ODE per iteration, readily applies to manifold data, scales to high dimensions, and is compatible with a large family of target paths interpolating pure noise and data in finite time. Theoretically, PPD is shown to bound classical probability divergences. Empirically, we show that CNFs learned by minimizing PPD achieve state-of-the-art results in likelihoods and sample quality on existing low-dimensional manifold benchmarks, and is the first example of a generative model to scale to moderately high dimensional manifolds.
Hanjun Dai · Mengjiao Yang · Yuan Xue · Dale Schuurmans · Bo Dai
Distributions over discrete sets capture the essential statistics including the high-order correlation among elements. Such information provides powerful insight for decision making across various application domains, e.g., product assortment based on product distribution in shopping carts. While deep generative models trained on pre-collected data can capture existing distributions, such pre-trained models are usually not capable of aligning with a target domain in the presence of distribution shift due to reasons such as temporal shift or the change in the population mix. We develop a general framework to adapt a generative model subject to a (possibly counterfactual) target data distribution with both sampling and computation efficiency. Concretely, instead of re-training a full model from scratch, we reuse the learned modules to preserve the correlations between set elements, while only adjusting corresponding components to align with target marginal constraints. We instantiate the approach for three commonly used forms of discrete set distribution---latent variable, autoregressive, and energy based models---and provide efficient solutions for marginal-constrained optimization in either primal or dual forms. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world e-commerce and EHR datasets show that the proposed framework is able to practically align a generative model to match marginal constraints under distribution shift.
Xiang Gao · Yuqi Zhang · Yingjie Tian
Image cartoonization is recently dominated by generative adversarial networks (GANs) from the perspective of unsupervised image-to-image translation, in which an inherent challenge is to precisely capture and sufficiently transfer characteristic cartoon styles (e.g., clear edges, smooth color shading, vivid colors, etc.). Existing advanced models try to enhance cartoonization effect by learning to promote edges adversarially, introducing style transfer loss, or learning to align style from multiple representation space. This paper demonstrates that more distinct and vivid cartoonization effect could be easily achieved with only basic adversarial loss. Observing that cartoon style is more evident in cartoon-texture-salient local image regions, we build a region-level adversarial learning branch in parallel with the normal image-level one, which constrains adversarial learning on cartoon-texture-salient local patches for better perceiving and transferring cartoon texture features. To this end, a novel cartoon-texture-saliency-sampler (CTSS) module is proposed to adaptively sample cartoon-texture-salient patches from training data. We present that such texture saliency adaptive attention is of significant importance in facilitating and enhancing cartoon stylization, which is a key missing ingredient of related methods. The superiority of our model in promoting cartoonization effect, especially for high-resolution input images, are fully demonstrated with extensive experiments.
Jiapeng Zhu · Yujun Shen · Yinghao Xu · Deli Zhao · Qifeng Chen
Despite the rapid advancement of semantic discovery in the latent space of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), existing approaches either are limited to finding global attributes or rely on a number of segmentation masks to identify local attributes. In this work, we present a highly efficient algorithm to factorize the latent semantics learned by GANs concerning an arbitrary image region. Concretely, we revisit the task of local manipulation with pre-trained GANs and formulate region-based semantic discovery as a dual optimization problem. Through an appropriately defined generalized Rayleigh quotient, we manage to solve such a problem without any annotations or training. Experimental results on various state-of-the-art GAN models demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, as well as its superiority over prior arts regarding precise control, region robustness, speed of implementation, and simplicity of use.