This paper introduces the notion of “Initial Alignment” (INAL) between a neural network at initialization and a target function. It is proved that if a network and a Boolean target function do not have a noticeable INAL, then noisy gradient descent with normalized i.i.d. initialization will not learn in polynomial time. Thus a certain amount of knowledge about the target (measured by the INAL) is needed in the architecture design. This also provides an answer to an open problem posed in (AS-NeurIPS’20). The results are based on deriving lower-bounds for descent algorithms on symmetric neural networks without explicit knowledge of the target function beyond its INAL.