Adversarial training (AT) is a widely recognized defense mechanism to gain the robustness of deep neural networks against adversarial attacks. It is built on min-max optimization (MMO), where the minimizer (i.e., defender) seeks a robust model to minimize the worst-case training loss in the presence of adversarial examples crafted by the maximizer (i.e., attacker). However, the conventional MMO method makes AT hard to scale. Thus, Fast-AT and other recent algorithms attempt to simplify MMO by replacing its maximization step with the single gradient sign-based attack generation step. Although easy to implement, FAST-AT lacks theoretical guarantees, and its empirical performance is unsatisfactory due to the issue of robust catastrophic overfitting when training with strong adversaries. In this paper, we advance Fast-AT from the fresh perspective of bi-level optimization (BLO). We first show that the commonly-used Fast-AT is equivalent to using a stochastic gradient algorithm to solve a linearized BLO problem involving a sign operation. However, the discrete nature of the sign operation makes it difficult to understand the algorithm performance. Inspired by BLO, we design and analyze a new set of robust training algorithms termed Fast Bi-level AT (Fast-BAT), which effectively defends sign-based projected gradient descent (PGD) attacks without using any gradient sign method or explicit robust regularization. In practice, we show that our method yields substantial robustness improvements over multiple baselines across multiple models and datasets.