Modeling the time-series of high-dimensional, longitudinal data is important for predicting patient disease progression. However, existing neural network based approaches that learn representations of patient state, while very flexible, are susceptible to overfitting. We propose a deep generative model that makes use of a novel attention-based neural architecture inspired by the physics of how treatments affect disease state. The result is a scalable and accurate model of high-dimensional patient biomarkers as they vary over time. Our proposed model yields significant improvements in generalization and, on real-world clinical data, provides interpretable insights into the dynamics of cancer progression.