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Optimization 4

Moderator: Shiqian Ma


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Tue 20 July 19:00 - 19:20 PDT

Sequential Domain Adaptation by Synthesizing Distributionally Robust Experts

Bahar Taskesen · Man-Chung Yue · Jose Blanchet · Daniel Kuhn · Viet Anh Nguyen

Least squares estimators, when trained on few target domain samples, may predict poorly. Supervised domain adaptation aims to improve the predictive accuracy by exploiting additional labeled training samples from a source distribution that is close to the target distribution. Given available data, we investigate novel strategies to synthesize a family of least squares estimator experts that are robust with regard to moment conditions. When these moment conditions are specified using Kullback-Leibler or Wasserstein-type divergences, we can find the robust estimators efficiently using convex optimization. We use the Bernstein online aggregation algorithm on the proposed family of robust experts to generate predictions for the sequential stream of target test samples. Numerical experiments on real data show that the robust strategies systematically outperform non-robust interpolations of the empirical least squares estimators.

Tue 20 July 19:20 - 19:25 PDT

Oblivious Sketching-based Central Path Method for Linear Programming

Zhao Song · Zheng Yu

In this work, we propose a sketching-based central path method for solving linear programmings, whose running time matches the state of the art results [Cohen, Lee, Song STOC 19; Lee, Song, Zhang COLT 19]. Our method opens up the iterations of the central path method and deploys an "iterate and sketch" approach towards the problem by introducing a new coordinate-wise embedding technique, which may be of independent interest. Compare to previous methods, the work [Cohen, Lee, Song STOC 19] enjoys feasibility while being non-oblivious, and [Lee, Song, Zhang COLT 19] is oblivious but infeasible, and relies on $\mathit{dense}$ sketching matrices such as subsampled randomized Hadamard/Fourier transform matrices. Our method enjoys the benefits of being both oblivious and feasible, and can use $\mathit{sparse}$ sketching matrix [Nelson, Nguyen FOCS 13] to speed up the online matrix-vector multiplication. Our framework for solving LP naturally generalizes to a broader class of convex optimization problems including empirical risk minimization.

Tue 20 July 19:25 - 19:30 PDT

Bayesian Optimization over Hybrid Spaces

Aryan Deshwal · Syrine Belakaria · Jana Doppa

We consider the problem of optimizing hybrid structures (mixture of discrete and continuous input variables) via expensive black-box function evaluations. This problem arises in many real-world applications. For example, in materials design optimization via lab experiments, discrete and continuous variables correspond to the presence/absence of primitive elements and their relative concentrations respectively. The key challenge is to accurately model the complex interactions between discrete and continuous variables. In this paper, we propose a novel approach referred as Hybrid Bayesian Optimization (HyBO) by utilizing diffusion kernels, which are naturally defined over continuous and discrete variables. We develop a principled approach for constructing diffusion kernels over hybrid spaces by utilizing the additive kernel formulation, which allows additive interactions of all orders in a tractable manner. We theoretically analyze the modeling strength of additive hybrid kernels and prove that it has the universal approximation property. Our experiments on synthetic and six diverse real-world benchmarks show that HyBO significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

Tue 20 July 19:30 - 19:35 PDT

Variational (Gradient) Estimate of the Score Function in Energy-based Latent Variable Models

Fan Bao · Kun Xu · Chongxuan Li · Lanqing Hong · Jun Zhu · Bo Zhang

This paper presents new estimates of the score function and its gradient with respect to the model parameters in a general energy-based latent variable model (EBLVM). The score function and its gradient can be expressed as combinations of expectation and covariance terms over the (generally intractable) posterior of the latent variables. New estimates are obtained by introducing a variational posterior to approximate the true posterior in these terms. The variational posterior is trained to minimize a certain divergence (e.g., the KL divergence) between itself and the true posterior. Theoretically, the divergence characterizes upper bounds of the bias of the estimates. In principle, our estimates can be applied to a wide range of objectives, including kernelized Stein discrepancy (KSD), score matching (SM)-based methods and exact Fisher divergence with a minimal model assumption. In particular, these estimates applied to SM-based methods outperform existing methods in learning EBLVMs on several image datasets.

Tue 20 July 19:35 - 19:40 PDT

Compositional Video Synthesis with Action Graphs

Amir Bar · Roi Herzig · Xiaolong Wang · Anna Rohrbach · Gal Chechik · Trevor Darrell · Amir Globerson

Videos of actions are complex signals containing rich compositional structure in space and time. Current video generation methods lack the ability to condition the generation on multiple coordinated and potentially simultaneous timed actions. To address this challenge, we propose to represent the actions in a graph structure called Action Graph and present the new "Action Graph To Video" synthesis task. Our generative model for this task (AG2Vid) disentangles motion and appearance features, and by incorporating a scheduling mechanism for actions facilitates a timely and coordinated video generation. We train and evaluate AG2Vid on CATER and Something-Something V2 datasets, which results in videos that have better visual quality and semantic consistency compared to baselines. Finally, our model demonstrates zero-shot abilities by synthesizing novel compositions of the learned actions.

Tue 20 July 19:40 - 19:45 PDT

Neural Pharmacodynamic State Space Modeling

Zeshan Hussain · Rahul G. Krishnan · David Sontag

Modeling the time-series of high-dimensional, longitudinal data is important for predicting patient disease progression. However, existing neural network based approaches that learn representations of patient state, while very flexible, are susceptible to overfitting. We propose a deep generative model that makes use of a novel attention-based neural architecture inspired by the physics of how treatments affect disease state. The result is a scalable and accurate model of high-dimensional patient biomarkers as they vary over time. Our proposed model yields significant improvements in generalization and, on real-world clinical data, provides interpretable insights into the dynamics of cancer progression.

Tue 20 July 19:45 - 19:50 PDT

Three Operator Splitting with a Nonconvex Loss Function

Alp Yurtsever · Varun Mangalick · Suvrit Sra

We consider the problem of minimizing the sum of three functions, one of which is nonconvex but differentiable, and the other two are convex but possibly nondifferentiable. We investigate the Three Operator Splitting method (TOS) of Davis & Yin (2017) with an aim to extend its theoretical guarantees for this nonconvex problem template. In particular, we prove convergence of TOS with nonasymptotic bounds on its nonstationarity and infeasibility errors. In contrast with the existing work on nonconvex TOS, our guarantees do not require additional smoothness assumptions on the terms comprising the objective; hence they cover instances of particular interest where the nondifferentiable terms are indicator functions. We also extend our results to a stochastic setting where we have access only to an unbiased estimator of the gradient. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method through numerical experiments on quadratic assignment problems.

Tue 20 July 19:50 - 19:55 PDT