Privacy 4

Moderator: Kunal Talwar


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Thu 22 July 18:00 - 18:20 PDT

Private Stochastic Convex Optimization: Optimal Rates in L1 Geometry

Hilal Asi · Vitaly Feldman · Tomer Koren · Kunal Talwar

Stochastic convex optimization over an $\ell_1$-bounded domain is ubiquitous in machine learning applications such as LASSO but remains poorly understood when learning with differential privacy. We show that, up to logarithmic factors the optimal excess population loss of any $(\epsilon,\delta)$-differentially private optimizer is $\sqrt{\log(d)/n} + \sqrt{d}/\epsilon n.$ The upper bound is based on a new algorithm that combines the iterative localization approach of Feldman et al. (2020) with a new analysis of private regularized mirror descent. It applies to $\ell_p$ bounded domains for $p\in [1,2]$ and queries at most $n^{3/2}$ gradients improving over the best previously known algorithm for the $\ell_2$ case which needs $n^2$ gradients. Further, we show that when the loss functions satisfy additional smoothness assumptions, the excess loss is upper bounded (up to logarithmic factors) by $\sqrt{\log(d)/n} + (\log(d)/\epsilon n)^{2/3}.$ This bound is achieved by a new variance-reduced version of the Frank-Wolfe algorithm that requires just a single pass over the data. We also show that the lower bound in this case is the minimum of the two rates mentioned above.

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Thu 22 July 18:20 - 18:25 PDT

Differentially Private Aggregation in the Shuffle Model: Almost Central Accuracy in Almost a Single Message

Badih Ghazi · Ravi Kumar · Pasin Manurangsi · Rasmus Pagh · Amer Sinha

The shuffle model of differential privacy has attracted attention in the literature due to it being a middle ground between the well-studied central and local models. In this work, we study the problem of summing (aggregating) real numbers or integers, a basic primitive in numerous machine learning tasks, in the shuffle model. We give a protocol achieving error arbitrarily close to that of the (Discrete) Laplace mechanism in central differential privacy, while each user only sends 1 + o(1) short messages in expectation.

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Thu 22 July 18:25 - 18:30 PDT

Model-Targeted Poisoning Attacks with Provable Convergence

Fnu Suya · Saeed Mahloujifar · Anshuman Suri · David Evans · Yuan Tian

In a poisoning attack, an adversary who controls a small fraction of the training data attempts to select that data, so a model is induced that misbehaves in a particular way. We consider poisoning attacks against convex machine learning models and propose an efficient poisoning attack designed to induce a model specified by the adversary. Unlike previous model-targeted poisoning attacks, our attack comes with provable convergence to any attainable target model. We also provide a lower bound on the minimum number of poisoning points needed to achieve a given target model. Our method uses online convex optimization and finds poisoning points incrementally. This provides more flexibility than previous attacks which require an a priori assumption about the number of poisoning points. Our attack is the first model-targeted poisoning attack that provides provable convergence for convex models. In our experiments, it either exceeds or matches state-of-the-art attacks in terms of attack success rate and distance to the target model.

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Thu 22 July 18:30 - 18:35 PDT

Practical and Private (Deep) Learning Without Sampling or Shuffling

Peter Kairouz · Brendan McMahan · Shuang Song · Om Dipakbhai Thakkar · Abhradeep Guha Thakurta · Zheng Xu

We consider training models with differential privacy (DP) using mini-batch gradients. The existing state-of-the-art, Differentially Private Stochastic Gradient Descent (DP-SGD), requires \emph{privacy amplification by sampling or shuffling} to obtain the best privacy/accuracy/computation trade-offs. Unfortunately, the precise requirements on exact sampling and shuffling can be hard to obtain in important practical scenarios, particularly federated learning (FL). We design and analyze a DP variant of Follow-The-Regularized-Leader (DP-FTRL) that compares favorably (both theoretically and empirically) to amplified DP-SGD, while allowing for much more flexible data access patterns. DP-FTRL does not use any form of privacy amplification.

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Thu 22 July 18:35 - 18:40 PDT

Leveraging Public Data for Practical Private Query Release

Terrance Liu · Giuseppe Vietri · Thomas Steinke · Jonathan Ullman · Steven Wu

In many statistical problems, incorporating priors can significantly improve performance. However, the use of prior knowledge in differentially private query release has remained underexplored, despite such priors commonly being available in the form of public datasets, such as previous US Census releases. With the goal of releasing statistics about a private dataset, we present PMW^Pub, which---unlike existing baselines---leverages public data drawn from a related distribution as prior information. We provide a theoretical analysis and an empirical evaluation on the American Community Survey (ACS) and ADULT datasets, which shows that our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, PMW^Pub scales well to high-dimensional data domains, where running many existing methods would be computationally infeasible.

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Thu 22 July 18:40 - 18:45 PDT

Private Adaptive Gradient Methods for Convex Optimization

Hilal Asi · John Duchi · Alireza Fallah · Omid Javidbakht · Kunal Talwar

We study adaptive methods for differentially private convex optimization, proposing and analyzing differentially private variants of a Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) algorithm with adaptive stepsizes, as well as the AdaGrad algorithm. We provide upper bounds on the regret of both algorithms and show that the bounds are (worst-case) optimal. As a consequence of our development, we show that our private versions of AdaGrad outperform adaptive SGD, which in turn outperforms traditional SGD in scenarios with non-isotropic gradients where (non-private) Adagrad provably outperforms SGD. The major challenge is that the isotropic noise typically added for privacy dominates the signal in gradient geometry for high-dimensional problems; approaches to this that effectively optimize over lower-dimensional subspaces simply ignore the actual problems that varying gradient geometries introduce. In contrast, we study non-isotropic clipping and noise addition, developing a principled theoretical approach; the consequent procedures also enjoy significantly stronger empirical performance than prior approaches.

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Thu 22 July 18:45 - 18:50 PDT

Oneshot Differentially Private Top-k Selection

Gang Qiao · Weijie Su · Li Zhang

Being able to efficiently and accurately select the top-$k$ elements with differential privacy is an integral component of various private data analysis tasks. In this paper, we present the oneshot Laplace mechanism, which generalizes the well-known Report Noisy Max~\cite{dwork2014algorithmic} mechanism to reporting noisy top-$k$ elements. We show that the oneshot Laplace mechanism with a noise level of $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{k}/\eps)$ is approximately differentially private. Compared to the previous peeling approach of running Report Noisy Max $k$ times, the oneshot Laplace mechanism only adds noises and computes the top $k$ elements once, hence much more efficient for large $k$. In addition, our proof of privacy relies on a novel coupling technique that bypasses the composition theorems so without the linear dependence on $k$ which is inherent to various composition theorems. Finally, we present a novel application of efficient top-$k$ selection in the classical problem of ranking from pairwise comparisons.

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Thu 22 July 18:50 - 18:55 PDT