Session

Semisupervised and Unsupervised Learning 1

Moderator: Yuning You



Thu 22 Jul 7 a.m. PDT — 8 a.m. PDT

Abstract:

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Thu 22 July 7:00 - 7:20 PDT

(Oral)
Graph Contrastive Learning Automated

Yuning You · Tianlong Chen · Yang Shen · Zhangyang “Atlas” Wang

Self-supervised learning on graph-structured data has drawn recent interest for learning generalizable, transferable and robust representations from unlabeled graphs. Among many, graph contrastive learning (GraphCL) has emerged with promising representation learning performance. Unfortunately, unlike its counterpart on image data, the effectiveness of GraphCL hinges on ad-hoc data augmentations, which have to be manually picked per dataset, by either rules of thumb or trial-and-errors, owing to the diverse nature of graph data. That significantly limits the more general applicability of GraphCL. Aiming to fill in this crucial gap, this paper proposes a unified bi-level optimization framework to automatically, adaptively and dynamically select data augmentations when performing GraphCL on specific graph data. The general framework, dubbed JOint Augmentation Optimization (JOAO), is instantiated as min-max optimization. The selections of augmentations made by JOAO are shown to be in general aligned with previous "best practices" observed from handcrafted tuning: yet now being automated, more flexible and versatile. Moreover, we propose a new augmentation-aware projection head mechanism, which will route output features through different projection heads corresponding to different augmentations chosen at each training step. Extensive experiments demonstrate that JOAO performs on par with or sometimes better than the state-of-the-art competitors including GraphCL, on multiple graph datasets of various scales and types, yet without resorting to any laborious dataset-specific tuning on augmentation selection. We release the code at https://github.com/Shen-Lab/GraphCL_Automated.

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Thu 22 July 7:20 - 7:25 PDT

(Spotlight)
Barlow Twins: Self-Supervised Learning via Redundancy Reduction

Jure Zbontar · Li Jing · Ishan Misra · yann lecun · Stephane Deny

Self-supervised learning (SSL) is rapidly closing the gap with supervised methods on large computer vision benchmarks. A successful approach to SSL is to learn embeddings which are invariant to distortions of the input sample. However, a recurring issue with this approach is the existence of trivial constant solutions. Most current methods avoid such solutions by careful implementation details. We propose an objective function that naturally avoids collapse by measuring the cross-correlation matrix between the outputs of two identical networks fed with distorted versions of a sample, and making it as close to the identity matrix as possible. This causes the embedding vectors of distorted versions of a sample to be similar, while minimizing the redundancy between the components of these vectors. The method is called Barlow Twins, owing to neuroscientist H. Barlow's redundancy-reduction principle applied to a pair of identical networks. Barlow Twins does not require large batches nor asymmetry between the network twins such as a predictor network, gradient stopping, or a moving average on the weight updates. Intriguingly it benefits from very high-dimensional output vectors. Barlow Twins outperforms previous methods on ImageNet for semi-supervised classification in the low-data regime, and is on par with current state of the art for ImageNet classification with a linear classifier head, and for transfer tasks of classification and object detection.

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Thu 22 July 7:25 - 7:30 PDT

(Spotlight)
Pointwise Binary Classification with Pairwise Confidence Comparisons

Lei Feng · Senlin Shu · Nan Lu · Bo Han · Miao Xu · Gang Niu · Bo An · Masashi Sugiyama

To alleviate the data requirement for training effective binary classifiers in binary classification, many weakly supervised learning settings have been proposed. Among them, some consider using pairwise but not pointwise labels, when pointwise labels are not accessible due to privacy, confidentiality, or security reasons. However, as a pairwise label denotes whether or not two data points share a pointwise label, it cannot be easily collected if either point is equally likely to be positive or negative. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel setting called pairwise comparison (Pcomp) classification, where we have only pairs of unlabeled data that we know one is more likely to be positive than the other. Firstly, we give a Pcomp data generation process, derive an unbiased risk estimator (URE) with theoretical guarantee, and further improve URE using correction functions. Secondly, we link Pcomp classification to noisy-label learning to develop a progressive URE and improve it by imposing consistency regularization. Finally, we demonstrate by experiments the effectiveness of our methods, which suggests Pcomp is a valuable and practically useful type of pairwise supervision besides the pairwise label.

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Thu 22 July 7:30 - 7:35 PDT

(Spotlight)
Learning from Similarity-Confidence Data

Yuzhou Cao · Lei Feng · Yitian Xu · Bo An · Gang Niu · Masashi Sugiyama

Weakly supervised learning has drawn considerable attention recently to reduce the expensive time and labor consumption of labeling massive data. In this paper, we investigate a novel weakly supervised learning problem of learning from similarity-confidence (Sconf) data, where only unlabeled data pairs equipped with confidence that illustrates their degree of similarity (two examples are similar if they belong to the same class) are needed for training a discriminative binary classifier. We propose an unbiased estimator of the classification risk that can be calculated from only Sconf data and show that the estimation error bound achieves the optimal convergence rate. To alleviate potential overfitting when flexible models are used, we further employ a risk correction scheme on the proposed risk estimator. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

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Thu 22 July 7:35 - 7:40 PDT

(Spotlight)
Unsupervised Co-part Segmentation through Assembly

Qingzhe Gao · Bin Wang · Libin Liu · Baoquan Chen

Co-part segmentation is an important problem in computer vision for its rich applications. We propose an unsupervised learning approach for co-part segmentation from images. For the training stage, we leverage motion information embedded in videos and explicitly extract latent representations to segment meaningful object parts. More importantly, we introduce a dual procedure of part-assembly to form a closed loop with part-segmentation, enabling an effective self-supervision. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with a host of extensive experiments, ranging from human bodies, hands, quadruped, and robot arms. We show that our approach can achieve meaningful and compact part segmentation, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches on diverse benchmarks.

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Thu 22 July 7:40 - 7:45 PDT

(Spotlight)
Randomized Dimensionality Reduction for Facility Location and Single-Linkage Clustering

Shyam Narayanan · Sandeep Silwal · Piotr Indyk · Or Zamir

Random dimensionality reduction is a versatile tool for speeding up algorithms for high-dimensional problems. We study its application to two clustering problems: the facility location problem, and the single-linkage hierarchical clustering problem, which is equivalent to computing the minimum spanning tree. We show that if we project the input pointset $X$ onto a random $d = O(d_X)$-dimensional subspace (where $d_X$ is the doubling dimension of $X$), then the optimum facility location cost in the projected space approximates the original cost up to a constant factor. We show an analogous statement for minimum spanning tree, but with the dimension $d$ having an extra $\log \log n$ term and the approximation factor being arbitrarily close to $1$. Furthermore, we extend these results to approximating {\em solutions} instead of just their {\em costs}. Lastly, we provide experimental results to validate the quality of solutions and the speedup due to the dimensionality reduction. Unlike several previous papers studying this approach in the context of $k$-means and $k$-medians, our dimension bound does not depend on the number of clusters but only on the intrinsic dimensionality of $X$.

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Thu 22 July 7:45 - 7:50 PDT

(Spotlight)
Learning Binary Decision Trees by Argmin Differentiation

Valentina Zantedeschi · Matt J. Kusner · Vlad Niculae

We address the problem of learning binary decision trees that partition data for some downstream task. We propose to learn discrete parameters (i.e., for tree traversals and node pruning) and continuous parameters (i.e., for tree split functions and prediction functions) simultaneously using argmin differentiation. We do so by sparsely relaxing a mixed-integer program for the discrete parameters, to allow gradients to pass through the program to continuous parameters. We derive customized algorithms to efficiently compute the forward and backward passes. This means that our tree learning procedure can be used as an (implicit) layer in arbitrary deep networks, and can be optimized with arbitrary loss functions. We demonstrate that our approach produces binary trees that are competitive with existing single tree and ensemble approaches, in both supervised and unsupervised settings. Further, apart from greedy approaches (which do not have competitive accuracies), our method is faster to train than all other tree-learning baselines we compare with.

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Thu 22 July 7:50 - 7:55 PDT

(Q&A)
Q&A

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