Deep Generative Model 4
Moderator: Ivan Oseledets
Charlie Nash · Jacob Menick · Sander Dieleman · Peter Battaglia
The high dimensionality of images presents architecture and sampling-efficiency challenges for likelihood-based generative models. Previous approaches such as VQ-VAE use deep autoencoders to obtain compact representations, which are more practical as inputs for likelihood-based models. We present an alternative approach, inspired by common image compression methods like JPEG, and convert images to quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) blocks, which are represented sparsely as a sequence of DCT channel, spatial location, and DCT coefficient triples. We propose a Transformer-based autoregressive architecture, which is trained to sequentially predict the conditional distribution of the next element in such sequences, and which scales effectively to high resolution images. On a range of image datasets, we demonstrate that our approach can generate high quality, diverse images, with sample metric scores competitive with state of the art methods. We additionally show that simple modifications to our method yield effective image colorization and super-resolution models.
Graziano Mita · Maurizio Filippone · Pietro Michiardi
A large part of the literature on learning disentangled representations focuses on variational autoencoders (VAEs). Recent developments demonstrate that disentanglement cannot be obtained in a fully unsupervised setting without inductive biases on models and data. However, Khemakhem et al., AISTATS, 2020 suggest that employing a particular form of factorized prior, conditionally dependent on auxiliary variables complementing input observations, can be one such bias, resulting in an identifiable model with guarantees on disentanglement. Working along this line, we propose a novel VAE-based generative model with theoretical guarantees on identifiability. We obtain our conditional prior over the latents by learning an optimal representation, which imposes an additional strength on their regularization. We also extend our method to semi-supervised settings. Experimental results indicate superior performance with respect to state-of-the-art approaches, according to several established metrics proposed in the literature on disentanglement.
Tomoki Watanabe · Paolo Favaro
We propose a novel GAN training scheme that can handle any level of labeling in a unified manner. Our scheme introduces a form of artificial labeling that can incorporate manually defined labels, when available, and induce an alignment between them. To define the artificial labels, we exploit the assumption that neural network generators can be trained more easily to map nearby latent vectors to data with semantic similarities, than across separate categories. We use generated data samples and their corresponding artificial conditioning labels to train a classifier. The classifier is then used to self-label real data. To boost the accuracy of the self-labeling, we also use the exponential moving average of the classifier. However, because the classifier might still make mistakes, especially at the beginning of the training, we also refine the labels through self-attention, by using the labeling of real data samples only when the classifier outputs a high classification probability score. We evaluate our approach on CIFAR-10, STL-10 and SVHN, and show that both self-labeling and self-attention consistently improve the quality of generated data. More surprisingly, we find that the proposed scheme can even outperform class-conditional GANs.
Sahil Sidheekh · Aroof Aimen · Narayanan Chatapuram Krishnan
Despite the accomplishments of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) in modeling data distributions, training them remains a challenging task. A contributing factor to this difficulty is the non-intuitive nature of the GAN loss curves, which necessitates a subjective evaluation of the generated output to infer training progress. Recently, motivated by game theory, Duality Gap has been proposed as a domain agnostic measure to monitor GAN training. However, it is restricted to the setting when the GAN converges to a Nash equilibrium. But GANs need not always converge to a Nash equilibrium to model the data distribution. In this work, we extend the notion of duality gap to proximal duality gap that is applicable to the general context of training GANs where Nash equilibria may not exist. We show theoretically that the proximal duality gap can monitor the convergence of GANs to a broader spectrum of equilibria that subsumes Nash equilibria. We also theoretically establish the relationship between the proximal duality gap and the divergence between the real and generated data distributions for different GAN formulations. Our results provide new insights into the nature of GAN convergence. Finally, we validate experimentally the usefulness of proximal duality gap for monitoring and influencing GAN training.
Marin Biloš · Stephan Günnemann
Modeling sets is an important problem in machine learning since this type of data can be found in many domains. A promising approach defines a family of permutation invariant densities with continuous normalizing flows. This allows us to maximize the likelihood directly and sample new realizations with ease. In this work, we demonstrate how calculating the trace, a crucial step in this method, raises issues that occur both during training and inference, limiting its practicality. We propose an alternative way of defining permutation equivariant transformations that give closed form trace. This leads not only to improvements while training, but also to better final performance. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach on point processes and general set modeling.
Vivek Jayaram · John Thickstun
This paper introduces an alternative approach to sampling from autoregressive models. Autoregressive models are typically sampled sequentially, according to the transition dynamics defined by the model. Instead, we propose a sampling procedure that initializes a sequence with white noise and follows a Markov chain defined by Langevin dynamics on the global log-likelihood of the sequence. This approach parallelizes the sampling process and generalizes to conditional sampling. Using an autoregressive model as a Bayesian prior, we can steer the output of a generative model using a conditional likelihood or constraints. We apply these techniques to autoregressive models in the visual and audio domains, with competitive results for audio source separation, super-resolution, and inpainting.
Aditya Ramesh · Mikhail Pavlov · Gabriel Goh · Scott Gray · Chelsea Voss · Alec Radford · Mark Chen · Ilya Sutskever
Text-to-image generation has traditionally focused on finding better modeling assumptions for training on a fixed dataset. These assumptions might involve complex architectures, auxiliary losses, or side information such as object part labels or segmentation masks supplied during training. We describe a simple approach for this task based on a transformer that autoregressively models the text and image tokens as a single stream of data. With sufficient data and scale, our approach is competitive with previous domain-specific models when evaluated in a zero-shot fashion.