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Improved, Deterministic Smoothing for L_1 Certified Robustness

Alexander Levine · Soheil Feizi

Keywords: [ Algorithms ] [ Adversarial Examples ] [ Regularization ] [ Algorithms -> Regression; Algorithms -> Spectral Methods; Optimization -> Convex Optimization; Theory ] [ Learning Theory ]


Randomized smoothing is a general technique for computing sample-dependent robustness guarantees against adversarial attacks for deep classifiers. Prior works on randomized smoothing against L1 adversarial attacks use additive smoothing noise and provide probabilistic robustness guarantees. In this work, we propose a non-additive and deterministic smoothing method, Deterministic Smoothing with Splitting Noise (DSSN). To develop DSSN, we first develop SSN, a randomized method which involves generating each noisy smoothing sample by first randomly splitting the input space and then returning a representation of the center of the subdivision occupied by the input sample. In contrast to uniform additive smoothing, the SSN certification does not require the random noise components used to be independent. Thus, smoothing can be done effectively in just one dimension and can therefore be efficiently derandomized for quantized data (e.g., images). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to provide deterministic "randomized smoothing" for a norm-based adversarial threat model while allowing for an arbitrary classifier (i.e., a deep model) to be used as a base classifier and without requiring an exponential number of smoothing samples. On CIFAR-10 and ImageNet datasets, we provide substantially larger L1 robustness certificates compared to prior works, establishing a new state-of-the-art. The determinism of our method also leads to significantly faster certificate computation. Code is available at:

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