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SKIing on Simplices: Kernel Interpolation on the Permutohedral Lattice for Scalable Gaussian Processes

Sanyam Kapoor · Marc Finzi · Ke Alexander Wang · Andrew Wilson

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State-of-the-art methods for scalable Gaussian processes use iterative algorithms, requiring fast matrix vector multiplies (MVMs) with the co-variance kernel. The Structured Kernel Interpolation (SKI) framework accelerates these MVMs by performing efficient MVMs on a grid and interpolating back to the original space. In this work, we develop a connection between SKI and the permutohedral lattice used for high-dimensional fast bilateral filtering. Using a sparse simplicial grid instead of a dense rectangular one, we can perform GP inference exponentially faster in the dimension than SKI. Our approach, Simplex-GP, enables scaling SKI to high dimensions, while maintaining strong predictive performance. We additionally provide a CUDA implementation of Simplex-GP, which enables significant GPU acceleration of MVM based inference.

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