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Semisupervised and Unsupervised Learning 2

Moderator: Ivor Tsang


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Thu 22 July 17:00 - 17:20 PDT

Leveraged Weighted Loss for Partial Label Learning

Hongwei Wen · Jingyi Cui · Hanyuan Hang · Jiabin Liu · Yisen Wang · Zhouchen Lin

As an important branch of weakly supervised learning, partial label learning deals with data where each instance is assigned with a set of candidate labels, whereas only one of them is true. Despite many methodology studies on learning from partial labels, there still lacks theoretical understandings of their risk consistent properties under relatively weak assumptions, especially on the link between theoretical results and the empirical choice of parameters. In this paper, we propose a family of loss functions named \textit{Leveraged Weighted} (LW) loss, which for the first time introduces the leverage parameter $\beta$ to consider the trade-off between losses on partial labels and non-partial ones. From the theoretical side, we derive a generalized result of risk consistency for the LW loss in learning from partial labels, based on which we provide guidance to the choice of the leverage parameter $\beta$. In experiments, we verify the theoretical guidance, and show the high effectiveness of our proposed LW loss on both benchmark and real datasets compared with other state-of-the-art partial label learning algorithms.

Thu 22 July 17:20 - 17:25 PDT

Unitary Branching Programs: Learnability and Lower Bounds

Fidel Ernesto Diaz Andino · Maria Kokkou · Mateus de Oliveira Oliveira · Farhad Vadiee

Bounded width branching programs are a formalism that can be used to capture the notion of non-uniform constant-space computation. In this work, we study a generalized version of bounded width branching programs where instructions are defined by unitary matrices of bounded dimension. We introduce a new learning framework for these branching programs that leverages on a combination of local search techniques with gradient descent over Riemannian manifolds. We also show that gapped, read-once branching programs of bounded dimension can be learned with a polynomial number of queries in the presence of a teacher. Finally, we provide explicit near-quadratic size lower-bounds for bounded-dimension unitary branching programs, and exponential size lower-bounds for bounded-dimension read-once gapped unitary branching programs. The first lower bound is proven using a combination of Neciporuk’s lower bound technique with classic results from algebraic geometry. The second lower bound is proven within the framework of communication complexity theory.

Thu 22 July 17:25 - 17:30 PDT

Provably End-to-end Label-noise Learning without Anchor Points

Xuefeng Li · Tongliang Liu · Bo Han · Gang Niu · Masashi Sugiyama

In label-noise learning, the transition matrix plays a key role in building statistically consistent classifiers. Existing consistent estimators for the transition matrix have been developed by exploiting anchor points. However, the anchor-point assumption is not always satisfied in real scenarios. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end framework for solving label-noise learning without anchor points, in which we simultaneously optimize two objectives: the cross entropy loss between the noisy label and the predicted probability by the neural network, and the volume of the simplex formed by the columns of the transition matrix. Our proposed framework can identify the transition matrix if the clean class-posterior probabilities are sufficiently scattered. This is by far the mildest assumption under which the transition matrix is provably identifiable and the learned classifier is statistically consistent. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

Thu 22 July 17:30 - 17:35 PDT

MorphVAE: Generating Neural Morphologies from 3D-Walks using a Variational Autoencoder with Spherical Latent Space

Sophie Laturnus · Philipp Berens

For the past century, the anatomy of a neuron has been considered one of its defining features: The shape of a neuron's dendrites and axon fundamentally determines what other neurons it can connect to. These neurites have been described using mathematical tools e.g. in the context of cell type classification, but generative models of these structures have only rarely been proposed and are often computationally inefficient. Here we propose MorphVAE, a sequence-to-sequence variational autoencoder with spherical latent space as a generative model for neural morphologies. The model operates on walks within the tree structure of a neuron and can incorporate expert annotations on a subset of the data using semi-supervised learning. We develop our model on artificially generated toy data and evaluate its performance on dendrites of excitatory cells and axons of inhibitory cells of mouse motor cortex (M1) and dendrites of retinal ganglion cells. We show that the learned latent feature space allows for better cell type discrimination than other commonly used features. By sampling new walks from the latent space we can easily construct new morphologies with a specified degree of similarity to their reference neuron, providing an efficient generative model for neural morphologies.

Thu 22 July 17:35 - 17:40 PDT

Unsupervised Embedding Adaptation via Early-Stage Feature Reconstruction for Few-Shot Classification

Dong Hoon Lee · Sae-Young Chung

We propose unsupervised embedding adaptation for the downstream few-shot classification task. Based on findings that deep neural networks learn to generalize before memorizing, we develop Early-Stage Feature Reconstruction (ESFR) --- a novel adaptation scheme with feature reconstruction and dimensionality-driven early stopping that finds generalizable features. Incorporating ESFR consistently improves the performance of baseline methods on all standard settings, including the recently proposed transductive method. ESFR used in conjunction with the transductive method further achieves state-of-the-art performance on mini-ImageNet, tiered-ImageNet, and CUB; especially with 1.2%~2.0% improvements in accuracy over the previous best performing method on 1-shot setting.

Thu 22 July 17:40 - 17:45 PDT

Improved Algorithms for Agnostic Pool-based Active Classification

Julian Katz-Samuels · Jifan Zhang · Lalit Jain · Kevin Jamieson

We consider active learning for binary classification in the agnostic pool-based setting. The vast majority of works in active learning in the agnostic setting are inspired by the CAL algorithm where each query is uniformly sampled from the disagreement region of the current version space. The sample complexity of such algorithms is described by a quantity known as the disagreement coefficient which captures both the geometry of the hypothesis space as well as the underlying probability space. To date, the disagreement coefficient has been justified by minimax lower bounds only, leaving the door open for superior instance dependent sample complexities. In this work we propose an algorithm that, in contrast to uniform sampling over the disagreement region, solves an experimental design problem to determine a distribution over examples from which to request labels. We show that the new approach achieves sample complexity bounds that are never worse than the best disagreement coefficient-based bounds, but in specific cases can be dramatically smaller. From a practical perspective, the proposed algorithm requires no hyperparameters to tune (e.g., to control the aggressiveness of sampling), and is computationally efficient by means of assuming access to an empirical risk minimization oracle (without any constraints). Empirically, we demonstrate that our algorithm is superior to state of the art agnostic active learning algorithms on image classification datasets.

Thu 22 July 17:45 - 17:50 PDT

Adversarial Multi Class Learning under Weak Supervision with Performance Guarantees

Alessio Mazzetto · Cyrus Cousins · Dylan Sam · Stephen Bach · Eli Upfal

We develop a rigorous approach for using a set of arbitrarily correlated weak supervision sources in order to solve a multiclass classification task when only a very small set of labeled data is available. Our learning algorithm provably converges to a model that has minimum empirical risk with respect to an adversarial choice over feasible labelings for a set of unlabeled data, where the feasibility of a labeling is computed through constraints defined by rigorously estimated statistics of the weak supervision sources. We show theoretical guarantees for this approach that depend on the information provided by the weak supervision sources. Notably, this method does not require the weak supervision sources to have the same labeling space as the multiclass classification task. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with experiments on various image classification tasks.

Thu 22 July 17:50 - 17:55 PDT