Moderator: Katherine Heller
Arkopal Dutt · Andrey Lokhov · Marc Vuffray · Sidhant Misra
The usual setting for learning the structure and parameters of a graphical model assumes the availability of independent samples produced from the corresponding multivariate probability distribution. However, for many models the mixing time of the respective Markov chain can be very large and i.i.d. samples may not be obtained. We study the problem of reconstructing binary graphical models from correlated samples produced by a dynamical process, which is natural in many applications. We analyze the sample complexity of two estimators that are based on the interaction screening objective and the conditional likelihood loss. We observe that for samples coming from a dynamical process far from equilibrium, the sample complexity reduces exponentially compared to a dynamical process that mixes quickly.
Taewon Jeong · Heeyoung Kim
A Gaussian process is a standard surrogate model for an unknown objective function in Bayesian optimization. In this paper, we propose a new surrogate model, called the objective bound conditional Gaussian process (OBCGP), to condition a Gaussian process on a bound on the optimal function value. The bound is obtained and updated as the best observed value during the sequential optimization procedure. Unlike the standard Gaussian process, the OBCGP explicitly incorporates the existence of a point that improves the best known bound. We treat the location of such a point as a model parameter and estimate it jointly with other parameters by maximizing the likelihood using variational inference. Within the standard Bayesian optimization framework, the OBCGP can be combined with various acquisition functions to select the next query point. In particular, we derive cumulative regret bounds for the OBCGP combined with the upper confidence bound acquisition algorithm. Furthermore, the OBCGP can inherently incorporate a new type of prior knowledge, i.e., the bounds on the optimum, if it is available. The incorporation of this type of prior knowledge into a surrogate model has not been studied previously. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the OBCGP through its application to Bayesian optimization tasks, such as the sequential design of experiments and hyperparameter optimization in neural networks.
Luca Ambrogioni · Gianluigi Silvestri · Marcel van Gerven
The automation of probabilistic reasoning is one of the primary aims of machine learning. Recently, the confluence of variational inference and deep learning has led to powerful and flexible automatic inference methods that can be trained by stochastic gradient descent. In particular, normalizing flows are highly parameterized deep models that can fit arbitrarily complex posterior densities. However, normalizing flows struggle in highly structured probabilistic programs as they need to relearn the forward-pass of the program. Automatic structured variational inference (ASVI) remedies this problem by constructing variational programs that embed the forward-pass. Here, we combine the flexibility of normalizing flows and the prior-embedding property of ASVI in a new family of variational programs, which we named cascading flows. A cascading flows program interposes a newly designed highway flow architecture in between the conditional distributions of the prior program such as to steer it toward the observed data. These programs can be constructed automatically from an input probabilistic program and can also be amortized automatically. We evaluate the performance of the new variational programs in a series of structured inference problems. We find that cascading flows have much higher performance than both normalizing flows and ASVI in a large set of structured inference problems.
Yonghan Jung · Jin Tian · Elias Bareinboim
General methods have been developed for estimating causal effects from observational data under causal assumptions encoded in the form of a causal graph. Most of this literature assumes that the underlying causal graph is completely specified. However, only observational data is available in most practical settings, which means that one can learn at most a Markov equivalence class (MEC) of the underlying causal graph. In this paper, we study the problem of causal estimation from a MEC represented by a partial ancestral graph (PAG), which is learnable from observational data. We develop a general estimator for any identifiable causal effects in a PAG. The result fills a gap for an end-to-end solution to causal inference from observational data to effects estimation. Specifically, we develop a complete identification algorithm that derives an influence function for any identifiable causal effects from PAGs. We then construct a double/debiased machine learning (DML) estimator that is robust to model misspecification and biases in nuisance function estimation, permitting the use of modern machine learning techniques. Simulation results corroborate with the theory.
Andres Potapczynski · Luhuan Wu · Dan Biderman · Geoff Pleiss · John Cunningham
Scalable Gaussian Process methods are computationally attractive, yet introduce modeling biases that require rigorous study. This paper analyzes two common techniques: early truncated conjugate gradients (CG) and random Fourier features (RFF). We ﬁnd that both methods introduce a systematic bias on the learned hyperparameters: CG tends to underﬁt while RFF tends to overﬁt. We address these issues using randomized truncation estimators that eliminate bias in exchange for increased variance. In the case of RFF, we show that the bias-to-variance conversion is indeed a trade-off: the additional variance proves detrimental to optimization. However, in the case of CG, our unbiased learning procedure meaningfully outperforms its biased counterpart with minimal additional computation. Our code is available at https://github.com/ cunningham-lab/RTGPS.
Yu Wang · Alfred Hero
We propose a new graphical model inference procedure, called SG-PALM, for learning conditional dependency structure of high-dimensional tensor-variate data. Unlike most other tensor graphical models the proposed model is interpretable and computationally scalable to high dimension. Physical interpretability follows from the Sylvester generative (SG) model on which SG-PALM is based: the model is exact for any observation process that is a solution of a partial differential equation of Poisson type. Scalability follows from the fast proximal alternating linearized minimization (PALM) procedure that SG-PALM uses during training. We establish that SG-PALM converges linearly (i.e., geometric convergence rate) to a global optimum of its objective function. We demonstrate scalability and accuracy of SG-PALM for an important but challenging climate prediction problem: spatio-temporal forecasting of solar flares from multimodal imaging data.
Erik Bodin · Zhenwen Dai · Neill Campbell · Carl Henrik Ek
We present a novel approach to Bayesian inference and general Bayesian computation that is defined through a sequential decision loop. Our method defines a recursive partitioning of the sample space. It neither relies on gradients nor requires any problem-specific tuning, and is asymptotically exact for any density function with a bounded domain. The output is an approximation to the whole density function including the normalisation constant, via partitions organised in efficient data structures. Such approximations may be used for evidence estimation or fast posterior sampling, but also as building blocks to treat a larger class of estimation problems. The algorithm shows competitive performance to recent state-of-the-art methods on synthetic and real-world problems including parameter inference for gravitational-wave physics.