Semisupervised Learning 3

Moderator: Yi Xu


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Thu 22 July 6:00 - 6:20 PDT

Dash: Semi-Supervised Learning with Dynamic Thresholding

Yi Xu · Lei Shang · Jinxing Ye · Qi Qian · Yufeng Li · Baigui Sun · Hao Li · rong jin

While semi-supervised learning (SSL) has received tremendous attentions in many machine learning tasks due to its successful use of unlabeled data, existing SSL algorithms use either all unlabeled examples or the unlabeled examples with a fixed high-confidence prediction during the training progress. However, it is possible that too many correct/wrong pseudo labeled examples are eliminated/selected. In this work we develop a simple yet powerful framework, whose key idea is to select a subset of training examples from the unlabeled data when performing existing SSL methods so that only the unlabeled examples with pseudo labels related to the labeled data will be used to train models. The selection is performed at each updating iteration by only keeping the examples whose losses are smaller than a given threshold that is dynamically adjusted through the iteration. Our proposed approach, Dash, enjoys its adaptivity in terms of unlabeled data selection and its theoretical guarantee. Specifically, we theoretically establish the convergence rate of Dash from the view of non-convex optimization. Finally, we empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with state-of-the-art over benchmarks.

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Thu 22 July 6:20 - 6:25 PDT

In-Database Regression in Input Sparsity Time

Rajesh Jayaram · Alireza Samadian · David Woodruff · Peng Ye

Sketching is a powerful dimensionality reduction technique for accelerating algorithms for data analysis. A crucial step in sketching methods is to compute a subspace embedding (SE) for a large matrix $A \in \mathbb{R}^{N \times d}$. SE's are the primary tool for obtaining extremely efficient solutions for many linear-algebraic tasks, such as least squares regression and low rank approximation. Computing an SE often requires an explicit representation of $A$ and running time proportional to the size of $A$. However, if $A= T_1 \Join T_2 \Join \dots \Join T_m$ is the result of a database join query on several smaller tables $T_i \in \mathbb{R}^{n_i \times d_i}$, then this running time can be prohibitive, as $A$ itself can have as many as $O(n_1 n_2 \cdots n_m)$ rows. In this work, we design subspace embeddings for database joins which can be computed significantly faster than computing the join. For the case of a two table join $A = T_1 \Join T_2$ we give input-sparsity algorithms for computing subspace embeddings, with running time bounded by the number of non-zero entries in $T_1,T_2$. This results in input-sparsity time algorithms for high accuracy regression, significantly improving upon the running time of prior FAQ-based methods for regression. We extend our results to arbitrary joins for the ridge regression problem, also considerably improving the running time of prior methods. Empirically, we apply our method to real datasets and show that it is significantly faster than existing algorithms.

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Thu 22 July 6:25 - 6:30 PDT

Binary Classification from Multiple Unlabeled Datasets via Surrogate Set Classification

Nan Lu · Shida Lei · Gang Niu · Issei Sato · Masashi Sugiyama

To cope with high annotation costs, training a classifier only from weakly supervised data has attracted a great deal of attention these days. Among various approaches, strengthening supervision from completely unsupervised classification is a promising direction, which typically employs class priors as the only supervision and trains a binary classifier from unlabeled (U) datasets. While existing risk-consistent methods are theoretically grounded with high flexibility, they can learn only from two U sets. In this paper, we propose a new approach for binary classification from $m$ U-sets for $m\ge2$. Our key idea is to consider an auxiliary classification task called surrogate set classification (SSC), which is aimed at predicting from which U set each observed sample is drawn. SSC can be solved by a standard (multi-class) classification method, and we use the SSC solution to obtain the final binary classifier through a certain linear-fractional transformation. We built our method in a flexible and efficient end-to-end deep learning framework and prove it to be classifier-consistent. Through experiments, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method over state-of-the-art methods.

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Thu 22 July 6:30 - 6:35 PDT

Transfer-Based Semantic Anomaly Detection

Lucas Deecke · Lukas Ruff · Robert Vandermeulen · Hakan Bilen

Detecting semantic anomalies is challenging due to the countless ways in which they may appear in real-world data. While enhancing the robustness of networks may be sufficient for modeling simplistic anomalies, there is no good known way of preparing models for all potential and unseen anomalies that can potentially occur, such as the appearance of new object classes. In this paper, we show that a previously overlooked strategy for anomaly detection (AD) is to introduce an explicit inductive bias toward representations transferred over from some large and varied semantic task. We rigorously verify our hypothesis in controlled trials that utilize intervention, and show that it gives rise to surprisingly effective auxiliary objectives that outperform previous AD paradigms.

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Thu 22 July 6:35 - 6:40 PDT

Graph Convolution for Semi-Supervised Classification: Improved Linear Separability and Out-of-Distribution Generalization

Aseem Baranwal · Kimon Fountoulakis · Aukosh Jagannath

Recently there has been increased interest in semi-supervised classification in the presence of graphical information. A new class of learning models has emerged that relies, at its most basic level, on classifying the data after first applying a graph convolution. To understand the merits of this approach, we study the classification of a mixture of Gaussians, where the data corresponds to the node attributes of a stochastic block model. We show that graph convolution extends the regime in which the data is linearly separable by a factor of roughly $1/\sqrt{D}$, where $D$ is the expected degree of a node, as compared to the mixture model data on its own. Furthermore, we find that the linear classifier obtained by minimizing the cross-entropy loss after the graph convolution generalizes to out-of-distribution data where the unseen data can have different intra- and inter-class edge probabilities from the training data.

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Thu 22 July 6:40 - 6:45 PDT

Sinkhorn Label Allocation: Semi-Supervised Classification via Annealed Self-Training

Kai Sheng Tai · Peter Bailis · Gregory Valiant

Self-training is a standard approach to semi-supervised learning where the learner's own predictions on unlabeled data are used as supervision during training. In this paper, we reinterpret this label assignment process as an optimal transportation problem between examples and classes, wherein the cost of assigning an example to a class is mediated by the current predictions of the classifier. This formulation facilitates a practical annealing strategy for label assignment and allows for the inclusion of prior knowledge on class proportions via flexible upper bound constraints. The solutions to these assignment problems can be efficiently approximated using Sinkhorn iteration, thus enabling their use in the inner loop of standard stochastic optimization algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on the CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and SVHN datasets in comparison with FixMatch, a state-of-the-art self-training algorithm.

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Thu 22 July 6:45 - 6:50 PDT