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Supervised Learning 1

Moderator: Guillaume Bouchard

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Wed 21 July 5:00 - 5:20 PDT

When All We Need is a Piece of the Pie: A Generic Framework for Optimizing Two-way Partial AUC

Zhiyong Yang · Qianqian Xu · Shilong Bao · Yuan He · Xiaochun Cao · Qingming Huang

The Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is a crucial metric for machine learning, which evaluates the average performance over all possible True Positive Rates (TPRs) and False Positive Rates (FPRs). Based on the knowledge that a skillful classifier should simultaneously embrace a high TPR and a low FPR, we turn to study a more general variant called Two-way Partial AUC (TPAUC), where only the region with $\mathsf{TPR} \ge \alpha, \mathsf{FPR} \le \beta$ is included in the area. Moreover, a recent work shows that the TPAUC is essentially inconsistent with the existing Partial AUC metrics where only the FPR range is restricted, opening a new problem to seek solutions to leverage high TPAUC. Motivated by this, we present the first trial in this paper to optimize this new metric. The critical challenge along this course lies in the difficulty of performing gradient-based optimization with end-to-end stochastic training, even with a proper choice of surrogate loss. To address this issue, we propose a generic framework to construct surrogate optimization problems, which supports efficient end-to-end training with deep-learning. Moreover, our theoretical analyses show that: 1) the objective function of the surrogate problems will achieve an upper bound of the original problem under mild conditions, and 2) optimizing the surrogate problems leads to good generalization performance in terms of TPAUC with a high probability. Finally, empirical studies over several benchmark datasets speak to the efficacy of our framework.

Wed 21 July 5:20 - 5:25 PDT

SiameseXML: Siamese Networks meet Extreme Classifiers with 100M Labels

Kunal Dahiya · Ananye Agarwal · Deepak Saini · Gururaj K · Jian Jiao · Amit Singh · Sumeet Agarwal · Purushottam Kar · Manik Varma

Deep extreme multi-label learning (XML) requires training deep architectures that can tag a data point with its most relevant subset of labels from an extremely large label set. XML applications such as ad and product recommendation involve labels rarely seen during training but which nevertheless hold the key to recommendations that delight users. Effective utilization of label metadata and high quality predictions for rare labels at the scale of millions of labels are thus key challenges in contemporary XML research. To address these, this paper develops the SiameseXML framework based on a novel probabilistic model that naturally motivates a modular approach melding Siamese architectures with high-capacity extreme classifiers, and a training pipeline that effortlessly scales to tasks with 100 million labels. SiameseXML offers predictions 2--13% more accurate than leading XML methods on public benchmark datasets, as well as in live A/B tests on the Bing search engine, it offers significant gains in click-through-rates, coverage, revenue and other online metrics over state-of-the-art techniques currently in production. Code for SiameseXML is available at

Wed 21 July 5:25 - 5:30 PDT

Disentangling Sampling and Labeling Bias for Learning in Large-output Spaces

Ankit Singh Rawat · Aditya Menon · Wittawat Jitkrittum · Sadeep Jayasumana · Felix Xinnan Yu · Sashank Jakkam Reddi · Sanjiv Kumar

Negative sampling schemes enable efficient training given a large number of classes, by offering a means to approximate a computationally expensive loss function that takes all labels into account. In this paper, we present a new connection between these schemes and loss modification techniques for countering label imbalance. We show that different negative sampling schemes implicitly trade-off performance on dominant versus rare labels. Further, we provide a unified means to explicitly tackle both sampling bias, arising from working with a subset of all labels, and labeling bias, which is inherent to the data due to label imbalance. We empirically verify our findings on long-tail classification and retrieval benchmarks.

Wed 21 July 5:30 - 5:35 PDT

Learning Randomly Perturbed Structured Predictors for Direct Loss Minimization

Hedda Cohen Indelman · Tamir Hazan

Direct loss minimization is a popular approach for learning predictors over structured label spaces. This approach is computationally appealing as it replaces integration with optimization and allows to propagate gradients in a deep net using loss-perturbed prediction. Recently, this technique was extended to generative models, by introducing a randomized predictor that samples a structure from a randomly perturbed score function. In this work, we interpolate between these techniques by learning the variance of randomized structured predictors as well as their mean, in order to balance between the learned score function and the randomized noise. We demonstrate empirically the effectiveness of learning this balance in structured discrete spaces.

Wed 21 July 5:35 - 5:40 PDT

Improving Molecular Graph Neural Network Explainability with Orthonormalization and Induced Sparsity

Ryan Henderson · Djork-Arné Clevert · Floriane Montanari

Rationalizing which parts of a molecule drive the predictions of a molecular graph convolutional neural network (GCNN) can be difficult. To help, we propose two simple regularization techniques to apply during the training of GCNNs: Batch Representation Orthonormalization (BRO) and Gini regularization. BRO, inspired by molecular orbital theory, encourages graph convolution operations to generate orthonormal node embeddings. Gini regularization is applied to the weights of the output layer and constrains the number of dimensions the model can use to make predictions. We show that Gini and BRO regularization can improve the accuracy of state-of-the-art GCNN attribution methods on artificial benchmark datasets. In a real-world setting, we demonstrate that medicinal chemists significantly prefer explanations extracted from regularized models. While we only study these regularizers in the context of GCNNs, both can be applied to other types of neural networks.

Wed 21 July 5:40 - 5:45 PDT

Evaluating Robustness of Predictive Uncertainty Estimation: Are Dirichlet-based Models Reliable?

Anna-Kathrin Kopetzki · Bertrand Charpentier · Daniel Zügner · Sandhya Giri · Stephan Günnemann

Dirichlet-based uncertainty (DBU) models are a recent and promising class of uncertainty-aware models. DBU models predict the parameters of a Dirichlet distribution to provide fast, high-quality uncertainty estimates alongside with class predictions. In this work, we present the first large-scale, in-depth study of the robustness of DBU models under adversarial attacks. Our results suggest that uncertainty estimates of DBU models are not robust w.r.t. three important tasks: (1) indicating correctly and wrongly classified samples; (2) detecting adversarial examples; and (3) distinguishing between in-distribution (ID) and out-of-distribution (OOD) data. Additionally, we explore the first approaches to make DBU mod- els more robust. While adversarial training has a minor effect, our median smoothing based ap- proach significantly increases robustness of DBU models.

Wed 21 July 5:45 - 5:50 PDT

Meta-learning Hyperparameter Performance Prediction with Neural Processes

Ying WEI · Peilin Zhao · Junzhou Huang

The surrogate that predicts the performance of hyperparameters has been a key component for sequential model-based hyperparameter optimization. In practical applications, a trial of a hyper-parameter configuration may be so costly that a surrogate is expected to return an optimal configuration with as few trials as possible. Observing that human experts draw on their expertise in a machine learning model by trying configurations that once performed well on other datasets, we are inspired to build a trial-efficient surrogate by transferring the meta-knowledge learned from historical trials on other datasets. We propose an end-to-end surrogate named as Transfer NeuralProcesses (TNP) that learns a comprehensive set of meta-knowledge, including the parameters of historical surrogates, historical trials, and initial configurations for other datasets. Experiments on extensive OpenML datasets and three computer vision datasets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance in at least one order of magnitude less trials.

Wed 21 July 5:50 - 5:55 PDT