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Optimization (Nonconvex)

Moderator: Lam M. Nguyen

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Wed 21 July 5:00 - 5:20 PDT

Optimizing persistent homology based functions

Mathieu Carrière · Frederic Chazal · Marc Glisse · Yuichi Ike · Hariprasad Kannan · Yuhei Umeda

Solving optimization tasks based on functions and losses with a topological flavor is a very active and growing field of research in data science and Topological Data Analysis, with applications in non-convex optimization, statistics and machine learning. However, the approaches proposed in the literature are usually anchored to a specific application and/or topological construction, and do not come with theoretical guarantees. To address this issue, we study the differentiability of a general map associated with the most common topological construction, that is, the persistence map. Building on real analytic geometry arguments, we propose a general framework that allows us to define and compute gradients for persistence-based functions in a very simple way. We also provide a simple, explicit and sufficient condition for convergence of stochastic subgradient methods for such functions. This result encompasses all the constructions and applications of topological optimization in the literature. Finally, we provide associated code, that is easy to handle and to mix with other non-topological methods and constraints, as well as some experiments showcasing the versatility of our approach.

Wed 21 July 5:20 - 5:25 PDT

Debiasing a First-order Heuristic for Approximate Bi-level Optimization

Valerii Likhosherstov · Xingyou Song · Krzysztof Choromanski · Jared Quincy Davis · Adrian Weller

Approximate bi-level optimization (ABLO) consists of (outer-level) optimization problems, involving numerical (inner-level) optimization loops. While ABLO has many applications across deep learning, it suffers from time and memory complexity proportional to the length $r$ of its inner optimization loop. To address this complexity, an earlier first-order method (FOM) was proposed as a heuristic which omits second derivative terms, yielding significant speed gains and requiring only constant memory. Despite FOM's popularity, there is a lack of theoretical understanding of its convergence properties. We contribute by theoretically characterizing FOM's gradient bias under mild assumptions. We further demonstrate a rich family of examples where FOM-based SGD does not converge to a stationary point of the ABLO objective. We address this concern by proposing an unbiased FOM (UFOM) enjoying constant memory complexity as a function of $r$. We characterize the introduced time-variance tradeoff, demonstrate convergence bounds, and find an optimal UFOM for a given ABLO problem. Finally, we propose an efficient adaptive UFOM scheme.

Wed 21 July 5:25 - 5:30 PDT

SMG: A Shuffling Gradient-Based Method with Momentum

Trang Tran · Lam Nguyen · Quoc Tran-Dinh

We combine two advanced ideas widely used in optimization for machine learning: \textit{shuffling} strategy and \textit{momentum} technique to develop a novel shuffling gradient-based method with momentum, coined \textbf{S}huffling \textbf{M}omentum \textbf{G}radient (SMG), for non-convex finite-sum optimization problems. While our method is inspired by momentum techniques, its update is fundamentally different from existing momentum-based methods. We establish state-of-the-art convergence rates of SMG for any shuffling strategy using either constant or diminishing learning rate under standard assumptions (i.e. \textit{$L$-smoothness} and \textit{bounded variance}). When the shuffling strategy is fixed, we develop another new algorithm that is similar to existing momentum methods, and prove the same convergence rates for this algorithm under the $L$-smoothness and bounded gradient assumptions. We demonstrate our algorithms via numerical simulations on standard datasets and compare them with existing shuffling methods. Our tests have shown encouraging performance of the new algorithms.

Wed 21 July 5:30 - 5:35 PDT

Regret Minimization in Stochastic Non-Convex Learning via a Proximal-Gradient Approach

Nadav Hallak · Panayotis Mertikopoulos · Volkan Cevher

This paper develops a methodology for regret minimization with stochastic first-order oracle feedback in online, constrained, non-smooth, non-convex problems. In this setting, the minimization of external regret is beyond reach for first-order methods, and there are no gradient-based algorithmic frameworks capable of providing a solution. On that account, we propose a conceptual approach that leverages non-convex optimality measures, leading to a suitable generalization of the learner's local regret. We focus on a local regret measure defined via a proximal-gradient mapping, that also encompasses the original notion proposed by Hazan et al. (2017). To achieve no local regret in this setting, we develop a proximal-gradient method based on stochastic first-order feedback, and a simpler method for when access to a perfect first-order oracle is possible. Both methods are order-optimal (in the min-max sense), and we also establish a bound on the number of proximal-gradient queries these methods require. As an important application of our results, we also obtain a link between online and offline non-convex stochastic optimization manifested as a new proximal-gradient scheme with complexity guarantees matching those obtained via variance reduction techniques.

Wed 21 July 5:35 - 5:40 PDT

MARINA: Faster Non-Convex Distributed Learning with Compression

Eduard Gorbunov · Konstantin Burlachenko · Zhize Li · Peter Richtarik

We develop and analyze MARINA: a new communication efficient method for non-convex distributed learning over heterogeneous datasets. MARINA employs a novel communication compression strategy based on the compression of gradient differences that is reminiscent of but different from the strategy employed in the DIANA method of Mishchenko et al. (2019). Unlike virtually all competing distributed first-order methods, including DIANA, ours is based on a carefully designed biased gradient estimator, which is the key to its superior theoretical and practical performance. The communication complexity bounds we prove for MARINA are evidently better than those of all previous first-order methods. Further, we develop and analyze two variants of MARINA: VR-MARINA and PP-MARINA. The first method is designed for the case when the local loss functions owned by clients are either of a finite sum or of an expectation form, and the second method allows for a partial participation of clients – a feature important in federated learning. All our methods are superior to previous state-of-the-art methods in terms of oracle/communication complexity. Finally, we provide a convergence analysis of all methods for problems satisfying the Polyak-Łojasiewicz condition.

Wed 21 July 5:40 - 5:45 PDT

Bilevel Optimization: Convergence Analysis and Enhanced Design

Kaiyi Ji · Junjie Yang · Yingbin LIANG

Bilevel optimization has arisen as a powerful tool for many machine learning problems such as meta-learning, hyperparameter optimization, and reinforcement learning. In this paper, we investigate the nonconvex-strongly-convex bilevel optimization problem. For deterministic bilevel optimization, we provide a comprehensive convergence rate analysis for two popular algorithms respectively based on approximate implicit differentiation (AID) and iterative differentiation (ITD). For the AID-based method, we orderwisely improve the previous convergence rate analysis due to a more practical parameter selection as well as a warm start strategy, and for the ITD-based method we establish the first theoretical convergence rate. Our analysis also provides a quantitative comparison between ITD and AID based approaches. For stochastic bilevel optimization, we propose a novel algorithm named stocBiO, which features a sample-efficient hypergradient estimator using efficient Jacobian- and Hessian-vector product computations. We provide the convergence rate guarantee for stocBiO, and show that stocBiO outperforms the best known computational complexities orderwisely with respect to the condition number $\kappa$ and the target accuracy $\epsilon$. We further validate our theoretical results and demonstrate the efficiency of bilevel optimization algorithms by the experiments on meta-learning and hyperparameter optimization.

Wed 21 July 5:45 - 5:50 PDT

Learning from History for Byzantine Robust Optimization

Sai Praneeth Reddy Karimireddy · Lie He · Martin Jaggi

Byzantine robustness has received significant attention recently given its importance for distributed and federated learning. In spite of this, we identify severe flaws in existing algorithms even when the data across the participants is identically distributed. First, we show realistic examples where current state of the art robust aggregation rules fail to converge even in the absence of any Byzantine attackers. Secondly, we prove that even if the aggregation rules may succeed in limiting the influence of the attackers in a single round, the attackers can couple their attacks across time eventually leading to divergence. To address these issues, we present two surprisingly simple strategies: a new robust iterative clipping procedure, and incorporating worker momentum to overcome time-coupled attacks. This is the first provably robust method for the standard stochastic optimization setting.

Wed 21 July 5:50 - 5:55 PDT