Session

Deep Learning Algorithms 7

Moderator: Hossein Mobahi



Abstract:

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Tue 20 July 19:00 - 19:20 PDT
Out-of-Distribution Generalization via Risk Extrapolation (REx)

David Krueger · Ethan Caballero · Joern-Henrik Jacobsen · Amy Zhang · Jonathan Binas · Dinghuai Zhang · Remi Le Priol · Aaron Courville

Distributional shift is one of the major obstacles when transferring machine learning prediction systems from the lab to the real world. To tackle this problem, we assume that variation across training domains is representative of the variation we might encounter at test time, but also that shifts at test time may be more extreme in magnitude. In particular, we show that reducing differences in risk across training domains can reduce a model’s sensitivity to a wide range of extreme distributional shifts, including the challenging setting where the input contains both causal and anti-causal elements. We motivate this approach, Risk Extrapolation (REx), as a form of robust optimization over a perturbation set of extrapolated domains (MM-REx), and propose a penalty on the variance of training risks (V-REx) as a simpler variant. We prove that variants of REx can recover the causal mechanisms of the targets, while also providing robustness to changes in the input distribution (``covariate shift''). By appropriately trading-off robustness to causally induced distributional shifts and covariate shift, REx is able to outperform alternative methods such as Invariant Risk Minimization in situations where these types of shift co-occur.

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Tue 20 July 19:20 - 19:25 PDT
What Makes for End-to-End Object Detection?

Peize Sun · Yi Jiang · Enze Xie · Wenqi Shao · Zehuan Yuan · Changhu Wang · Ping Luo

Object detection has recently achieved a breakthrough for removing the last one non-differentiable component in the pipeline, Non-Maximum Suppression (NMS), and building up an end-to-end system. However, what makes for its one-to-one prediction has not been well understood. In this paper, we first point out that one-to-one positive sample assignment is the key factor, while, one-to-many assignment in previous detectors causes redundant predictions in inference. Second, we surprisingly find that even training with one-to-one assignment, previous detectors still produce redundant predictions. We identify that classification cost in matching cost is the main ingredient: (1) previous detectors only consider location cost, (2) by additionally introducing classification cost, previous detectors immediately produce one-to-one prediction during inference. We introduce the concept of score gap to explore the effect of matching cost. Classification cost enlarges the score gap by choosing positive samples as those of highest score in the training iteration and reducing noisy positive samples brought by only location cost. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of end-to-end object detection on crowded scenes.

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Tue 20 July 19:25 - 19:30 PDT
On Explainability of Graph Neural Networks via Subgraph Explorations

Hao Yuan · Haiyang Yu · Jie Wang · Kang Li · Shuiwang Ji

We consider the problem of explaining the predictions of graph neural networks (GNNs), which otherwise are considered as black boxes. Existing methods invariably focus on explaining the importance of graph nodes or edges but ignore the substructures of graphs, which are more intuitive and human-intelligible. In this work, we propose a novel method, known as SubgraphX, to explain GNNs by identifying important subgraphs. Given a trained GNN model and an input graph, our SubgraphX explains its predictions by efficiently exploring different subgraphs with Monte Carlo tree search. To make the tree search more effective, we propose to use Shapley values as a measure of subgraph importance, which can also capture the interactions among different subgraphs. To expedite computations, we propose efficient approximation schemes to compute Shapley values for graph data. Our work represents the first attempt to explain GNNs via identifying subgraphs explicitly and directly. Experimental results show that our SubgraphX achieves significantly improved explanations, while keeping computations at a reasonable level.

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Tue 20 July 19:30 - 19:35 PDT
Just How Toxic is Data Poisoning? A Unified Benchmark for Backdoor and Data Poisoning Attacks

Avi Schwarzschild · Micah Goldblum · Arjun Gupta · John P Dickerson · Tom Goldstein

Data poisoning and backdoor attacks manipulate training data in order to cause models to fail during inference. A recent survey of industry practitioners found that data poisoning is the number one concern among threats ranging from model stealing to adversarial attacks. However, it remains unclear exactly how dangerous poisoning methods are and which ones are more effective considering that these methods, even ones with identical objectives, have not been tested in consistent or realistic settings. We observe that data poisoning and backdoor attacks are highly sensitive to variations in the testing setup. Moreover, we find that existing methods may not generalize to realistic settings. While these existing works serve as valuable prototypes for data poisoning, we apply rigorous tests to determine the extent to which we should fear them. In order to promote fair comparison in future work, we develop standardized benchmarks for data poisoning and backdoor attacks.

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Tue 20 July 19:35 - 19:40 PDT
Data Augmentation for Meta-Learning

Renkun Ni · Micah Goldblum · Amr Sharaf · Kezhi Kong · Tom Goldstein

Conventional image classifiers are trained by randomly sampling mini-batches of images. To achieve state-of-the-art performance, practitioners use sophisticated data augmentation schemes to expand the amount of training data available for sampling. In contrast, meta-learning algorithms sample support data, query data, and tasks on each training step. In this complex sampling scenario, data augmentation can be used not only to expand the number of images available per class, but also to generate entirely new classes/tasks. We systematically dissect the meta-learning pipeline and investigate the distinct ways in which data augmentation can be integrated at both the image and class levels. Our proposed meta-specific data augmentation significantly improves the performance of meta-learners on few-shot classification benchmarks.

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Tue 20 July 19:40 - 19:45 PDT
Understanding Invariance via Feedforward Inversion of Discriminatively Trained Classifiers

Piotr Teterwak · Chiyuan Zhang · Dilip Krishnan · Michael Mozer

A discriminatively trained neural net classifier can fit the training data perfectly if all information about its input other than class membership has been discarded prior to the output layer. Surprisingly, past research has discovered that some extraneous visual detail remains in the unnormalized logits. This finding is based on inversion techniques that map deep embeddings back to images. We explore this phenomenon further using a novel synthesis of methods, yielding a feedforward inversion model that produces remarkably high fidelity reconstructions, qualitatively superior to those of past efforts. When applied to an adversarially robust classifier model, the reconstructions contain sufficient local detail and global structure that they might be confused with the original image in a quick glance, and the object category can clearly be gleaned from the reconstruction. Our approach is based on BigGAN (Brock, 2019), with conditioning on logits instead of one-hot class labels. We use our reconstruction model as a tool for exploring the nature of representations, including: the influence of model architecture and training objectives (specifically robust losses), the forms of invariance that networks achieve, representational differences between correctly and incorrectly classified images, and the effects of manipulating logits and images. We believe that our method can inspire future investigations into the nature of information flow in a neural net and can provide diagnostics for improving discriminative models. We provide pre-trained models and visualizations at \url{https://sites.google.com/view/understanding-invariance/home}.

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Tue 20 July 19:45 - 19:50 PDT
Neural Symbolic Regression that scales

Luca Biggio · Tommaso Bendinelli · Alexander Neitz · Aurelien Lucchi · Giambattista Parascandolo

Symbolic equations are at the core of scientific discovery. The task of discovering the underlying equation from a set of input-output pairs is called symbolic regression. Traditionally, symbolic regression methods use hand-designed strategies that do not improve with experience. In this paper, we introduce the first symbolic regression method that leverages large scale pre-training. We procedurally generate an unbounded set of equations, and simultaneously pre-train a Transformer to predict the symbolic equation from a corresponding set of input-output-pairs. At test time, we query the model on a new set of points and use its output to guide the search for the equation. We show empirically that this approach can re-discover a set of well-known physical equations, and that it improves over time with more data and compute.

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Tue 20 July 19:50 - 19:55 PDT
Q&A

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