Deep Learning Algorithms and Applications

Moderator: Jasper Snoek


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Tue 20 July 18:00 - 18:20 PDT
Unbiased Gradient Estimation in Unrolled Computation Graphs with Persistent Evolution Strategies

Paul Vicol · Luke Metz · Jascha Sohl-Dickstein

Unrolled computation graphs arise in many scenarios, including training RNNs, tuning hyperparameters through unrolled optimization, and training learned optimizers. Current approaches to optimizing parameters in such computation graphs suffer from high variance gradients, bias, slow updates, or large memory usage. We introduce a method called Persistent Evolution Strategies (PES), which divides the computation graph into a series of truncated unrolls, and performs an evolution strategies-based update step after each unroll. PES eliminates bias from these truncations by accumulating correction terms over the entire sequence of unrolls. PES allows for rapid parameter updates, has low memory usage, is unbiased, and has reasonable variance characteristics. We experimentally demonstrate the advantages of PES compared to several other methods for gradient estimation on synthetic tasks, and show its applicability to training learned optimizers and tuning hyperparameters.

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Tue 20 July 18:20 - 18:25 PDT
EfficientNetV2: Smaller Models and Faster Training

Mingxing Tan · Quoc Le

This paper introduces EfficientNetV2, a new family of convolutional networks that have faster training speed and better parameter efficiency than previous models. To develop these models, we use a combination of training-aware neural architecture search and scaling, to jointly optimize training speed and parameter efficiency. The models were searched from the search space enriched with new ops such as Fused-MBConv. Our experiments show that EfficientNetV2 models train much faster than state-of-the-art models while being up to 6.8x smaller. Our training can be further sped up by progressively increasing the image size during training, but it often causes a drop in accuracy. To compensate for this accuracy drop, we propose an improved method of progressive learning, which adaptively adjusts regularization (e.g. data augmentation) along with image size. With progressive learning, our EfficientNetV2 significantly outperforms previous models on ImageNet and CIFAR/Cars/Flowers datasets. By pretraining on the same ImageNet21k, our EfficientNetV2 achieves 87.3% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet ILSVRC2012, outperforming the recent ViT by 2.0% accuracy while training 5x-11x faster using the same computing resources.

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Tue 20 July 18:25 - 18:30 PDT
Causal Curiosity: RL Agents Discovering Self-supervised Experiments for Causal Representation Learning

Sumedh Sontakke · Arash Mehrjou · Laurent Itti · Bernhard Schölkopf

Humans show an innate ability to learn the regularities of the world through interaction. By performing experiments in our environment, we are able to discern the causal factors of variation and infer how they affect the dynamics of our world. Analogously, here we attempt to equip reinforcement learning agents with the ability to perform experiments that facilitate a categorization of the rolled-out trajectories, and to subsequently infer the causal factors of the environment in a hierarchical manner. We introduce a novel intrinsic reward, called causal curiosity, and show that it allows our agents to learn optimal sequences of actions, and to discover causal factors in the dynamics. The learned behavior allows the agent to infer a binary quantized representation for the ground-truth causal factors in every environment. Additionally, we find that these experimental behaviors are semantically meaningful (e.g., to differentiate between heavy and light blocks, our agents learn to lift them), and are learnt in a self-supervised manner with approximately 2.5 times less data than conventional supervised planners. We show that these behaviors can be re-purposed and fine-tuned (e.g., from lifting to pushing or other downstream tasks). Finally, we show that the knowledge of causal factor representations aids zero-shot learning for more complex tasks.

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Tue 20 July 18:30 - 18:35 PDT
LAMDA: Label Matching Deep Domain Adaptation

Trung Le · Tuan Nguyen · Nhat Ho · Hung Bui · Dinh Phung

Deep domain adaptation (DDA) approaches have recently been shown to perform better than their shallow rivals with better modeling capacity on complex domains (e.g., image, structural data, and sequential data). The underlying idea is to learn domain invariant representations on a latent space that can bridge the gap between source and target domains. Several theoretical studies have established insightful understanding and the benefit of learning domain invariant features; however, they are usually limited to the case where there is no label shift, hence hindering its applicability. In this paper, we propose and study a new challenging setting that allows us to use a Wasserstein distance (WS) to not only quantify the data shift but also to define the label shift directly. We further develop a theory to demonstrate that minimizing the WS of the data shift leads to closing the gap between the source and target data distributions on the latent space (e.g., an intermediate layer of a deep net), while still being able to quantify the label shift with respect to this latent space. Interestingly, our theory can consequently explain certain drawbacks of learning domain invariant features on the latent space. Finally, grounded on the results and guidance of our developed theory, we propose the Label Matching Deep Domain Adaptation (LAMDA) approach that outperforms baselines on real-world datasets for DA problems.

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Tue 20 July 18:35 - 18:40 PDT
Temporally Correlated Task Scheduling for Sequence Learning

Xueqing Wu · Lewen Wang · Yingce Xia · Weiqing Liu · Lijun Wu · Shufang Xie · Tao Qin · Tie-Yan Liu

Sequence learning has attracted much research attention from the machine learning community in recent years. In many applications, a sequence learning task is usually associated with multiple temporally correlated auxiliary tasks, which are different in terms of how much input information to use or which future step to predict. For example, (i) in simultaneous machine translation, one can conduct translation under different latency (i.e., how many input words to read/wait before translation); (ii) in stock trend forecasting, one can predict the price of a stock in different future days (e.g., tomorrow, the day after tomorrow). While it is clear that those temporally correlated tasks can help each other, there is a very limited exploration on how to better leverage multiple auxiliary tasks to boost the performance of the main task. In this work, we introduce a learnable scheduler to sequence learning, which can adaptively select auxiliary tasks for training depending on the model status and the current training data. The scheduler and the model for the main task are jointly trained through bi-level optimization. Experiments show that our method significantly improves the performance of simultaneous machine translation and stock trend forecasting.

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Tue 20 July 18:40 - 18:45 PDT
Information Obfuscation of Graph Neural Networks

Peiyuan Liao · Han Zhao · Keyulu Xu · Tommi Jaakkola · Geoff Gordon · Stefanie Jegelka · Ruslan Salakhutdinov

While the advent of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) has greatly improved node and graph representation learning in many applications, the neighborhood aggregation scheme exposes additional vulnerabilities to adversaries seeking to extract node-level information about sensitive attributes. In this paper, we study the problem of protecting sensitive attributes by information obfuscation when learning with graph structured data. We propose a framework to locally filter out pre-determined sensitive attributes via adversarial training with the total variation and the Wasserstein distance. Our method creates a strong defense against inference attacks, while only suffering small loss in task performance. Theoretically, we analyze the effectiveness of our framework against a worst-case adversary, and characterize an inherent trade-off between maximizing predictive accuracy and minimizing information leakage. Experiments across multiple datasets from recommender systems, knowledge graphs and quantum chemistry demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a robust defense across various graph structures and tasks, while producing competitive GNN encoders for downstream tasks.

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Tue 20 July 18:45 - 18:50 PDT

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