Deep Generative Model 3
Moderator: Alex Schwing
Adam Kosiorek · Heiko Strathmann · Daniel Zoran · Pol Moreno · Rosalia Schneider · Sona Mokra · Danilo J. Rezende
We propose NeRF-VAE, a 3D scene generative model that incorporates geometric structure via Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) and differentiable volume rendering. In contrast to NeRF, our model takes into account shared structure across scenes, and is able to infer the structure of a novel scene---without the need to re-train---using amortized inference. NeRF-VAE's explicit 3D rendering process further contrasts previous generative models with convolution-based rendering which lacks geometric structure. Our model is a VAE that learns a distribution over radiance fields by conditioning them on a latent scene representation. We show that, once trained, NeRF-VAE is able to infer and render geometrically-consistent scenes from previously unseen 3D environments of synthetic scenes using very few input images. We further demonstrate that NeRF-VAE generalizes well to out-of-distribution cameras, while convolutional models do not. Finally, we introduce and study an attention-based conditioning mechanism of NeRF-VAE's decoder, which improves model performance.
Akira Nakagawa · Keizo Kato · Taiji Suzuki
Variational autoencoder (VAE) estimates the posterior parameters (mean and variance) of latent variables corresponding to each input data. While it is used for many tasks, the transparency of the model is still an underlying issue. This paper provides a quantitative understanding of VAE property through the differential geometric and information-theoretic interpretations of VAE. According to the Rate-distortion theory, the optimal transform coding is achieved by using an orthonormal transform with PCA basis where the transform space is isometric to the input. Considering the analogy of transform coding to VAE, we clarify theoretically and experimentally that VAE can be mapped to an implicit isometric embedding with a scale factor derived from the posterior parameter. As a result, we can estimate the data probabilities in the input space from the prior, loss metrics, and corresponding posterior parameters, and further, the quantitative importance of each latent variable can be evaluated like the eigenvalue of PCA.
Zongyu Guo · Zhizheng Zhang · Runsen Feng · Zhibo Chen
Quantization is one of the core components in lossy image compression. For neural image compression, end-to-end optimization requires differentiable approximations of quantization, which can generally be grouped into three categories: additive uniform noise, straight-through estimator and soft-to-hard annealing. Training with additive uniform noise approximates the quantization error variationally but suffers from the train-test mismatch. The other two methods do not encounter this mismatch but, as shown in this paper, hurt the rate-distortion performance since the latent representation ability is weakened. We thus propose a novel soft-then-hard quantization strategy for neural image compression that first learns an expressive latent space softly, then closes the train-test mismatch with hard quantization. In addition, beyond the fixed integer-quantization, we apply scaled additive uniform noise to adaptively control the quantization granularity by deriving a new variational upper bound on actual rate. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods are easy to adopt, stable to train, and highly effective especially on complex compression models.
Yilun Du · Shuang Li · Josh Tenenbaum · Igor Mordatch
Contrastive divergence is a popular method of training energy-based models, but is known to have difficulties with training stability. We propose an adaptation to improve contrastive divergence training by scrutinizing a gradient term that is difficult to calculate and is often left out for convenience. We show that this gradient term is numerically significant and in practice is important to avoid training instabilities, while being tractable to estimate. We further highlight how data augmentation and multi-scale processing can be used to improve model robustness and generation quality. Finally, we empirically evaluate stability of model architectures and show improved performance on a host of benchmarks and use cases, such as image generation, OOD detection, and compositional generation.
Gefei Wang · Yuling Jiao · Qian Xu · Yang Wang · Can Yang
We propose to learn a generative model via entropy interpolation with a Schrödinger Bridge. The generative learning task can be formulated as interpolating between a reference distribution and a target distribution based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. At the population level, this entropy interpolation is characterized via an SDE on [0,1] with a time-varying drift term. At the sample level, we derive our Schrödinger Bridge algorithm by plugging the drift term estimated by a deep score estimator and a deep density ratio estimator into the Euler-Maruyama method. Under some mild smoothness assumptions of the target distribution, we prove the consistency of both the score estimator and the density ratio estimator, and then establish the consistency of the proposed Schrödinger Bridge approach. Our theoretical results guarantee that the distribution learned by our approach converges to the target distribution. Experimental results on multimodal synthetic data and benchmark data support our theoretical findings and indicate that the generative model via Schrödinger Bridge is comparable with state-of-the-art GANs, suggesting a new formulation of generative learning. We demonstrate its usefulness in image interpolation and image inpainting.
Yang Li · Junier Oliva
Modeling dependencies among features is fundamental for many machine learning tasks. Although there are often multiple related instances that may be leveraged to inform conditional dependencies, typical approaches only model conditional dependencies over individual instances. In this work, we propose a novel framework, partially observed exchangeable modeling (POEx) that takes in a set of related partially observed instances and infers the conditional distribution for the unobserved dimensions over multiple elements. Our approach jointly models the intra-instance (among features in a point) and inter-instance (among multiple points in a set) dependencies in data. POEx is a general framework that encompasses many existing tasks such as point cloud expansion and few-shot generation, as well as new tasks like few-shot imputation. Despite its generality, extensive empirical evaluations show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance across a range of applications.
Lily Zhang · Mark Goldstein · Rajesh Ranganath
Deep generative models (DGMs) seem a natural fit for detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs, but such models have been shown to assign higher probabilities or densities to OOD images than images from the training distribution. In this work, we explain why this behavior should be attributed to model misestimation. We first prove that no method can guarantee performance beyond random chance without assumptions on which out-distributions are relevant. We then interrogate the typical set hypothesis, the claim that relevant out-distributions can lie in high likelihood regions of the data distribution, and that OOD detection should be defined based on the data distribution's typical set. We highlight the consequences implied by assuming support overlap between in- and out-distributions, as well as the arbitrariness of the typical set for OOD detection. Our results suggest that estimation error is a more plausible explanation than the misalignment between likelihood-based OOD detection and out-distributions of interest, and we illustrate how even minimal estimation error can lead to OOD detection failures, yielding implications for future work in deep generative modeling and OOD detection.