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Deep Learning Algorithms 6

Moderator: Graham Taylor


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Tue 20 July 17:00 - 17:20 PDT

CATE: Computation-aware Neural Architecture Encoding with Transformers

Shen Yan · Kaiqiang Song · Fei Liu · Mi Zhang

Recent works (White et al., 2020a; Yan et al., 2020) demonstrate the importance of architecture encodings in Neural Architecture Search (NAS). These encodings encode either structure or computation information of the neural architectures. Compared to structure-aware encodings, computation-aware encodings map architectures with similar accuracies to the same region, which improves the downstream architecture search performance (Zhang et al., 2019; White et al., 2020a). In this work, we introduce a Computation-Aware Transformer-based Encoding method called CATE. Different from existing computation-aware encodings based on fixed transformation (e.g. path encoding), CATE employs a pairwise pre-training scheme to learn computation-aware encodings using Transformers with cross-attention. Such learned encodings contain dense and contextualized computation information of neural architectures. We compare CATE with eleven encodings under three major encoding-dependent NAS subroutines in both small and large search spaces. Our experiments show that CATE is beneficial to the downstream search, especially in the large search space. Moreover, the outside search space experiment demonstrates its superior generalization ability beyond the search space on which it was trained. Our code is available at:

Tue 20 July 17:20 - 17:25 PDT

What Does Rotation Prediction Tell Us about Classifier Accuracy under Varying Testing Environments?

Weijian Deng · Stephen Gould · Liang Zheng

Understanding classifier decision under novel environments is central to the community, and a common practice is evaluating it on labeled test sets. However, in real-world testing, image annotations are difficult and expensive to obtain, especially when the test environment is changing. A natural question then arises: given a trained classifier, can we evaluate its accuracy on varying unlabeled test sets? In this work, we train semantic classification and rotation prediction in a multi-task way. On a series of datasets, we report an interesting finding, i.e., the semantic classification accuracy exhibits a strong linear relationship with the accuracy of the rotation prediction task (Pearson's Correlation r > 0.88). This finding allows us to utilize linear regression to estimate classifier performance from the accuracy of rotation prediction which can be obtained on the test set through the freely generated rotation labels.

Tue 20 July 17:25 - 17:30 PDT

Towards Domain-Agnostic Contrastive Learning

Vikas Verma · Thang Luong · Kenji Kawaguchi · Hieu Pham · Quoc Le

Despite recent successes, most contrastive self-supervised learning methods are domain-specific, relying heavily on data augmentation techniques that require knowledge about a particular domain, such as image cropping and rotation. To overcome such limitation, we propose a domain-agnostic approach to contrastive learning, named DACL, that is applicable to problems where domain-specific data augmentations are not readily available. Key to our approach is the use of Mixup noise to create similar and dissimilar examples by mixing data samples differently either at the input or hidden-state levels. We theoretically analyze our method and show advantages over the Gaussian-noise based contrastive learning approach. To demonstrate the effectiveness of DACL, we conduct experiments across various domains such as tabular data, images, and graphs. Our results show that DACL not only outperforms other domain-agnostic noising methods, such as Gaussian-noise, but also combines well with domain-specific methods, such as SimCLR, to improve self-supervised visual representation learning.

Tue 20 July 17:30 - 17:35 PDT

Joining datasets via data augmentation in the label space for neural networks

Junbo Zhao · Mingfeng Ou · linji Xue · Yunkai Cui · Sai Wu · Gang Chen

Most, if not all, modern deep learning systems restrict themselves to a single dataset for neural network training and inference. In this article, we are interested in systematic ways to join datasets that are made of similar purposes. Unlike previous published works that ubiquitously conduct the dataset joining in the uninterpretable latent vectorial space, the core to our method is an augmentation procedure in the label space. The primary challenge to address the label space for dataset joining is the discrepancy between labels: non-overlapping label annotation sets, different labeling granularity or hierarchy and etc. Notably we propose a new technique leveraging artificially created knowledge graph, recurrent neural networks and policy gradient that successfully achieve the dataset joining in the label space. Empirical results on both image and text classification justify the validity of our approach.

Tue 20 July 17:35 - 17:40 PDT

Differentiable Sorting Networks for Scalable Sorting and Ranking Supervision

Felix Petersen · Christian Borgelt · Hilde Kuehne · Oliver Deussen

Sorting and ranking supervision is a method for training neural networks end-to-end based on ordering constraints. That is, the ground truth order of sets of samples is known, while their absolute values remain unsupervised. For that, we propose differentiable sorting networks by relaxing their pairwise conditional swap operations. To address the problems of vanishing gradients and extensive blurring that arise with larger numbers of layers, we propose mapping activations to regions with moderate gradients. We consider odd-even as well as bitonic sorting networks, which outperform existing relaxations of the sorting operation. We show that bitonic sorting networks can achieve stable training on large input sets of up to 1024 elements.

Tue 20 July 17:40 - 17:45 PDT

Meta-StyleSpeech : Multi-Speaker Adaptive Text-to-Speech Generation

Dongchan Min · Dong Bok Lee · Eunho Yang · Sung Ju Hwang

With rapid progress in neural text-to-speech (TTS) models, personalized speech generation is now in high demand for many applications. For practical applicability, a TTS model should generate high-quality speech with only a few audio samples from the given speaker, that are also short in length. However, existing methods either require to fine-tune the model or achieve low adaptation quality without fine-tuning. In this work, we propose StyleSpeech, a new TTS model which not only synthesizes high-quality speech but also effectively adapts to new speakers. Specifically, we propose Style-Adaptive Layer Normalization (SALN) which aligns gain and bias of the text input according to the style extracted from a reference speech audio. With SALN, our model effectively synthesizes speech in the style of the target speaker even from a single speech audio. Furthermore, to enhance StyleSpeech's adaptation to speech from new speakers, we extend it to Meta-StyleSpeech by introducing two discriminators trained with style prototypes, and performing episodic training. The experimental results show that our models generate high-quality speech which accurately follows the speaker's voice with single short-duration (1-3 sec) speech audio, significantly outperforming baselines.

Tue 20 July 17:45 - 17:50 PDT

Poolingformer: Long Document Modeling with Pooling Attention

Hang ZHANG · Yeyun Gong · Yelong Shen · Weisheng Li · Jiancheng Lv · Nan Duan · Weizhu Chen

In this paper, we introduce a two-level attention schema, Poolingformer, for long document modeling. Its first level uses a smaller sliding window pattern to aggregate information from neighbors. Its second level employs a larger window to increase receptive fields with pooling attention to reduce both computational cost and memory consumption. We first evaluate Poolingformer on two long sequence QA tasks: the monolingual NQ and the multilingual TyDi QA. Experimental results show that Poolingformer sits atop three official leaderboards measured by F1, outperforming previous state-of-the-art models by 1.9 points (79.8 vs. 77.9) on NQ long answer, 1.9 points (79.5 vs. 77.6) on TyDi QA passage answer, and 1.6 points (67.6 vs. 66.0) on TyDi QA minimal answer. We further evaluate Poolingformer on a long sequence summarization task. Experimental results on the arXiv benchmark continue to demonstrate its superior performance.

Tue 20 July 17:50 - 17:55 PDT