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Reinforcement Learning (Multi-agent)

Moderator: Alexander Vezhnevets


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Tue 20 July 5:00 - 5:20 PDT

Scalable Evaluation of Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning with Melting Pot

Joel Z Leibo · Edgar Duenez-Guzman · Alexander Vezhnevets · John Agapiou · Peter Sunehag · Raphael Koster · Jayd Matyas · Charles Beattie · Igor Mordatch · Thore Graepel

Existing evaluation suites for multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) do not assess generalization to novel situations as their primary objective (unlike supervised learning benchmarks). Our contribution, Melting Pot, is a MARL evaluation suite that fills this gap and uses reinforcement learning to reduce the human labor required to create novel test scenarios. This works because one agent's behavior constitutes (part of) another agent's environment. To demonstrate scalability, we have created over 80 unique test scenarios covering a broad range of research topics such as social dilemmas, reciprocity, resource sharing, and task partitioning. We apply these test scenarios to standard MARL training algorithms, and demonstrate how Melting Pot reveals weaknesses not apparent from training performance alone.

Tue 20 July 5:20 - 5:25 PDT

UneVEn: Universal Value Exploration for Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Tarun Gupta · Anuj Mahajan · Bei Peng · Wendelin Boehmer · Shimon Whiteson

VDN and QMIX are two popular value-based algorithms for cooperative MARL that learn a centralized action value function as a monotonic mixing of per-agent utilities. While this enables easy decentralization of the learned policy, the restricted joint action value function can prevent them from solving tasks that require significant coordination between agents at a given timestep. We show that this problem can be overcome by improving the joint exploration of all agents during training. Specifically, we propose a novel MARL approach called Universal Value Exploration (UneVEn) that learns a set of related tasks simultaneously with a linear decomposition of universal successor features. With the policies of already solved related tasks, the joint exploration process of all agents can be improved to help them achieve better coordination. Empirical results on a set of exploration games, challenging cooperative predator-prey tasks requiring significant coordination among agents, and StarCraft II micromanagement benchmarks show that UneVEn can solve tasks where other state-of-the-art MARL methods fail.

Tue 20 July 5:25 - 5:30 PDT

A Policy Gradient Algorithm for Learning to Learn in Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

Dong Ki Kim · Miao Liu · Matthew Riemer · Chuangchuang Sun · Marwa Abdulhai · Golnaz Habibi · Sebastian Lopez-Cot · Gerald Tesauro · Jonathan How

A fundamental challenge in multiagent reinforcement learning is to learn beneficial behaviors in a shared environment with other simultaneously learning agents. In particular, each agent perceives the environment as effectively non-stationary due to the changing policies of other agents. Moreover, each agent is itself constantly learning, leading to natural non-stationarity in the distribution of experiences encountered. In this paper, we propose a novel meta-multiagent policy gradient theorem that directly accounts for the non-stationary policy dynamics inherent to multiagent learning settings. This is achieved by modeling our gradient updates to consider both an agent’s own non-stationary policy dynamics and the non-stationary policy dynamics of other agents in the environment. We show that our theoretically grounded approach provides a general solution to the multiagent learning problem, which inherently comprises all key aspects of previous state of the art approaches on this topic. We test our method on a diverse suite of multiagent benchmarks and demonstrate a more efficient ability to adapt to new agents as they learn than baseline methods across the full spectrum of mixed incentive, competitive, and cooperative domains.

Tue 20 July 5:30 - 5:35 PDT

Multi-Agent Training beyond Zero-Sum with Correlated Equilibrium Meta-Solvers

Luke Marris · Paul Muller · Marc Lanctot · Karl Tuyls · Thore Graepel

Two-player, constant-sum games are well studied in the literature, but there has been limited progress outside of this setting. We propose Joint Policy-Space Response Oracles (JPSRO), an algorithm for training agents in n-player, general-sum extensive form games, which provably converges to an equilibrium. We further suggest correlated equilibria (CE) as promising meta-solvers, and propose a novel solution concept Maximum Gini Correlated Equilibrium (MGCE), a principled and computationally efficient family of solutions for solving the correlated equilibrium selection problem. We conduct several experiments using CE meta-solvers for JPSRO and demonstrate convergence on n-player, general-sum games.

Tue 20 July 5:35 - 5:40 PDT

PC-MLP: Model-based Reinforcement Learning with Policy Cover Guided Exploration

Yuda Song · Wen Sun

Model-based Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a popular learning paradigm due to its potential sample efficiency compared to model-free RL. However, existing empirical model-based RL approaches lack the ability to explore. This work studies a computationally and statistically efficient model-based algorithm for both Kernelized Nonlinear Regulators (KNR) and linear Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). For both models, our algorithm guarantees polynomial sample complexity and only uses access to a planning oracle. Experimentally, we first demonstrate the flexibility and the efficacy of our algorithm on a set of exploration challenging control tasks where existing empirical model-based RL approaches completely fail. We then show that our approach retains excellent performance even in common dense reward control benchmarks that do not require heavy exploration.

Tue 20 July 5:40 - 5:45 PDT

Imitation by Predicting Observations

Andrew Jaegle · Yury Sulsky · Arun Ahuja · Jake Bruce · Rob Fergus · Greg Wayne

Imitation learning enables agents to reuse and adapt the hard-won expertise of others, offering a solution to several key challenges in learning behavior. Although it is easy to observe behavior in the real-world, the underlying actions may not be accessible. We present a new method for imitation solely from observations that achieves comparable performance to experts on challenging continuous control tasks while also exhibiting robustness in the presence of observations unrelated to the task. Our method, which we call FORM (for "Future Observation Reward Model") is derived from an inverse RL objective and imitates using a model of expert behavior learned by generative modelling of the expert's observations, without needing ground truth actions. We show that FORM performs comparably to a strong baseline IRL method (GAIL) on the DeepMind Control Suite benchmark, while outperforming GAIL in the presence of task-irrelevant features.

Tue 20 July 5:45 - 5:50 PDT