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Deep Learning Applications

Moderator: Yihe Dong


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Tue 20 July 5:00 - 5:20 PDT

Attention is not all you need: pure attention loses rank doubly exponentially with depth

Yihe Dong · Jean-Baptiste Cordonnier · Andreas Loukas

Attention-based architectures have become ubiquitous in machine learning. Yet, our understanding of the reasons for their effectiveness remains limited. This work proposes a new way to understand self-attention networks: we show that their output can be decomposed into a sum of smaller terms---or paths---each involving the operation of a sequence of attention heads across layers. Using this path decomposition, we prove that self-attention possesses a strong inductive bias towards "token uniformity". Specifically, without skip connections or multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), the output converges doubly exponentially to a rank-1 matrix. On the other hand, skip connections and MLPs stop the output from degeneration. Our experiments verify the convergence results on standard transformer architectures.

Tue 20 July 5:20 - 5:25 PDT

Navigation Turing Test (NTT): Learning to Evaluate Human-Like Navigation

Sam Devlin · Raluca Georgescu · Ida Momennejad · Jaroslaw Rzepecki · Evelyn Zuniga · Gavin Costello · Guy Leroy · Ali Shaw · Katja Hofmann

A key challenge on the path to developing agents that learn complex human-like behavior is the need to quickly and accurately quantify human-likeness. While human assessments of such behavior can be highly accurate, speed and scalability are limited. We address these limitations through a novel automated Navigation Turing Test (ANTT) that learns to predict human judgments of human-likeness. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our automated NTT on a navigation task in a complex 3D environment. We investigate six classification models to shed light on the types of architectures best suited to this task, and validate them against data collected through a human NTT. Our best models achieve high accuracy when distinguishing true human and agent behavior. At the same time, we show that predicting finer-grained human assessment of agents’ progress towards human-like behavior remains unsolved. Our work takes an important step towards agents that more effectively learn complex human-like behavior.

Tue 20 July 5:25 - 5:30 PDT

Efficient Generative Modelling of Protein Structure Fragments using a Deep Markov Model

Christian Thygesen · Christian Skjødt Steenmans · Ahmad Salim Al-Sibahi · Lys Sanz Moreta · Anders Bundgård Sørensen · Thomas Hamelryck

Fragment libraries are often used in protein structure prediction, simulation and design as a means to significantly reduce the vast conformational search space. Current state-of-the-art methods for fragment library generation do not properly account for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty, respectively due to the dynamic nature of proteins and experimental errors in protein structures. Additionally, they typically rely on information that is not generally or readily available, such as homologous sequences, related protein structures and other complementary information. To address these issues, we developed BIFROST, a novel take on the fragment library problem based on a Deep Markov Model architecture combined with directional statistics for angular degrees of freedom, implemented in the deep probabilistic programming language Pyro. BIFROST is a probabilistic, generative model of the protein backbone dihedral angles conditioned solely on the amino acid sequence. BIFROST generates fragment libraries with a quality on par with current state-of-the-art methods at a fraction of the run-time, while requiring considerably less information and allowing efficient evaluation of probabilities.

Tue 20 July 5:30 - 5:35 PDT

Exploiting structured data for learning contagious diseases under incomplete testing

Maggie Makar · Lauren R West · David C Hooper · Eric Horvitz · Erica Shenoy · John Guttag

One of the ways that machine learning algorithms can help control the spread of an infectious disease is by building models that predict who is likely to become infected making them good candidates for preemptive interventions. In this work we ask: can we build reliable infection prediction models when the observed data is collected under limited, and biased testing that prioritizes testing symptomatic individuals? Our analysis suggests that when the infection is highly transmissible, incomplete testing might be sufficient to achieve good out-of-sample prediction error. Guided by this insight, we develop an algorithm that predicts infections, and show that it outperforms baselines on simulated data. We apply our model to data from a large hospital to predict Clostridioides difficile infections; a communicable disease that is characterized by both symptomatically infected and asymptomatic (i.e., untested) carriers. Using a proxy instead of the unobserved untested-infected state, we show that our model outperforms benchmarks in predicting infections.

Tue 20 July 5:35 - 5:40 PDT

Strategic Classification Made Practical

Sagi Levanon · Nir Rosenfeld

Strategic classification regards the problem of learning in settings where users can strategically modify their features to improve outcomes. This setting applies broadly, and has received much recent attention. But despite its practical significance, work in this space has so far been predominantly theoretical. In this paper we present a learning framework for strategic classification that is practical. Our approach directly minimizes the ``strategic'' empirical risk, which we achieve by differentiating through the strategic response of users. This provides flexibility that allows us to extend beyond the original problem formulation and towards more realistic learning scenarios. A series of experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach on various learning settings.

Tue 20 July 5:40 - 5:45 PDT

Large-Margin Contrastive Learning with Distance Polarization Regularizer

Shuo Chen · Gang Niu · Chen Gong · Jun Li · Jian Yang · Masashi Sugiyama

\emph{Contrastive learning}~(CL) pretrains models in a pairwise manner, where given a data point, other data points are all regarded as dissimilar, including some that are \emph{semantically} similar. The issue has been addressed by properly weighting similar and dissimilar pairs as in \emph{positive-unlabeled learning}, so that the objective of CL is \emph{unbiased} and CL is \emph{consistent}. However, in this paper, we argue that this great solution is still not enough: its weighted objective \emph{hides} the issue where the semantically similar pairs are still pushed away; as CL is pretraining, this phenomenon is not our desideratum and might affect downstream tasks. To this end, we propose \emph{large-margin contrastive learning}~(LMCL) with \emph{distance polarization regularizer}, motivated by the distribution characteristic of pairwise distances in \emph{metric learning}. In LMCL, we can distinguish between \emph{intra-cluster} and \emph{inter-cluster} pairs, and then only push away inter-cluster pairs, which \emph{solves} the above issue explicitly. Theoretically, we prove a tighter error bound for LMCL; empirically, the superiority of LMCL is demonstrated across multiple domains, \emph{i.e.}, image classification, sentence representation, and reinforcement learning.

Tue 20 July 5:45 - 5:50 PDT

SPADE: A Spectral Method for Black-Box Adversarial Robustness Evaluation

Wuxinlin Cheng · Chenhui Deng · Zhiqiang Zhao · Yaohui Cai · Zhiru Zhang · Zhuo Feng

A black-box spectral method is introduced for evaluating the adversarial robustness of a given machine learning (ML) model. Our approach, named SPADE, exploits bijective distance mapping between the input/output graphs constructed for approximating the manifolds corresponding to the input/output data. By leveraging the generalized Courant-Fischer theorem, we propose a SPADE score for evaluating the adversarial robustness of a given model, which is proved to be an upper bound of the best Lipschitz constant under the manifold setting. To reveal the most non-robust data samples highly vulnerable to adversarial attacks, we develop a spectral graph embedding procedure leveraging dominant generalized eigenvectors. This embedding step allows assigning each data point a robustness score that can be further harnessed for more effective adversarial training of ML models. Our experiments show promising empirical results for neural networks trained with the MNIST and CIFAR-10 data sets.

Tue 20 July 5:50 - 5:55 PDT