Auto-ML and Optimization

Moderator: Jacob Gardner

Tue 20 Jul 5 a.m. PDT — 6 a.m. PDT


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Tue 20 July 5:00 - 5:20 PDT

BORE: Bayesian Optimization by Density-Ratio Estimation

Louis Chi-Chun Tiao · Aaron Klein · Matthias W Seeger · Edwin V Bonilla · Cedric Archambeau · Fabio Ramos

Bayesian optimization (BO) is among the most effective and widely-used blackbox optimization methods. BO proposes solutions according to an explore-exploit trade-off criterion encoded in an acquisition function, many of which are computed from the posterior predictive of a probabilistic surrogate model. Prevalent among these is the expected improvement (EI). The need to ensure analytical tractability of the predictive often poses limitations that can hinder the efficiency and applicability of BO. In this paper, we cast the computation of EI as a binary classification problem, building on the link between class-probability estimation and density-ratio estimation, and the lesser-known link between density-ratios and EI. By circumventing the tractability constraints, this reformulation provides numerous advantages, not least in terms of expressiveness, versatility, and scalability.

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Tue 20 July 5:20 - 5:25 PDT

AutoSampling: Search for Effective Data Sampling Schedules

MING SUN · Haoxuan Dou · Baopu Li · Junjie Yan · Wanli Ouyang · Lei Cui

Data sampling acts as a pivotal role in training deep learning models. However, an effective sampling schedule is difficult to learn due to its inherent high-dimension as a hyper-parameter. In this paper, we propose an AutoSampling method to automatically learn sampling schedules for model training, which consists of the multi-exploitation step aiming for optimal local sampling schedules and the exploration step for the ideal sampling distribution. More specifically, we achieve sampling schedule search with shortened exploitation cycle to provide enough supervision. In addition, we periodically estimate the sampling distribution from the learned sampling schedules and perturb it to search in the distribution space. The combination of two searches allows us to learn a robust sampling schedule. We apply our AutoSampling method to a variety of image classification tasks illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Tue 20 July 5:25 - 5:30 PDT

HardCoRe-NAS: Hard Constrained diffeRentiable Neural Architecture Search

Niv Nayman · Yonathan Aflalo · Asaf Noy · Lihi Zelnik

Realistic use of neural networks often requires adhering to multiple constraints on latency, energy and memory among others. A popular approach to find fitting networks is through constrained Neural Architecture Search (NAS), however, previous methods enforce the constraint only softly. Therefore, the resulting networks do not exactly adhere to the resource constraint and their accuracy is harmed. In this work we resolve this by introducing Hard Constrained diffeRentiable NAS (HardCoRe-NAS), that is based on an accurate formulation of the expected resource requirement and a scalable search method that satisfies the hard constraint throughout the search. Our experiments show that HardCoRe-NAS generates state-of-the-art architectures, surpassing other NAS methods, while strictly satisfying the hard resource constraints without any tuning required.

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Tue 20 July 5:30 - 5:35 PDT

Bias-Robust Bayesian Optimization via Dueling Bandits

Johannes Kirschner · Andreas Krause

We consider Bayesian optimization in settings where observations can be adversarially biased, for example by an uncontrolled hidden confounder. Our first contribution is a reduction of the confounded setting to the dueling bandit model. Then we propose a novel approach for dueling bandits based on information-directed sampling (IDS). Thereby, we obtain the first efficient kernelized algorithm for dueling bandits that comes with cumulative regret guarantees. Our analysis further generalizes a previously proposed semi-parametric linear bandit model to non-linear reward functions, and uncovers interesting links to doubly-robust estimation.

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Tue 20 July 5:35 - 5:40 PDT

Zeroth-Order Non-Convex Learning via Hierarchical Dual Averaging

Amélie Héliou · Matthieu Martin · Panayotis Mertikopoulos · Thibaud J Rahier

We propose a hierarchical version of dual averaging for zeroth-order online non-convex optimization – i.e., learning processes where, at each stage, the optimizer is facing an unknown non-convex loss function and only receives the incurred loss as feedback. The proposed class of policies relies on the construction of an online model that aggregates loss information as it arrives, and it consists of two principal components: (a) a regularizer adapted to the Fisher information metric (as opposed to the metric norm of the ambient space); and (b) a principled exploration of the problem’s state space based on an adapted hierarchical schedule. This construction enables sharper control of the model’s bias and variance, and allows us to derive tight bounds for both the learner’s static and dynamic regret – i.e., the regret incurred against the best dynamic policy in hindsight over the horizon of play.

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Tue 20 July 5:40 - 5:45 PDT

Sparsifying Networks via Subdifferential Inclusion

Sagar Verma · Jean-Christophe Pesquet

Sparsifying deep neural networks is of paramount interest in many areas, especially when those networks have to be implemented on low-memory devices. In this article, we propose a new formulation of the problem of generating sparse weights for a pre-trained neural network. By leveraging the properties of standard nonlinear activation functions, we show that the problem is equivalent to an approximate subdifferential inclusion problem. The accuracy of the approximation controls the sparsity. We show that the proposed approach is valid for a broad class of activation functions (ReLU, sigmoid, softmax). We propose an iterative optimization algorithm to induce sparsity whose convergence is guaranteed. Because of the algorithm flexibility, the sparsity can be ensured from partial training data in a minibatch manner. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we perform experiments on various networks in different applicative contexts: image classification, speech recognition, natural language processing, and time-series forecasting.

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Tue 20 July 5:45 - 5:50 PDT