Yariv Mizrahi and Misha Denil and Nando De Freitas
We introduce a new embarrassingly parallel parameter learning algorithm for Markov random fields which is efficient for a large class of practical models. Our algorithm parallelizes naturally over cliques and, for graphs of bounded degree, its complexity is linear in the number of cliques. Unlike its competitors, our algorithm is fully parallel and for log-linear models it is also data efficient, requiring only the local sufficient statistics of the data to estimate parameters.
Roni Mittelman and Benjamin Kuipers and Silvio Savarese and Honglak Lee
The Recurrent temporal restricted Boltzmann machine (RTRBM) is a probabilistic model for temporal data, that has been shown to effectively capture both short and long-term dependencies in time-series. The topology of the RTRBM graphical model, however, assumes full connectivity between all the pairs of visible and hidden units, therefore ignoring the dependency structure between the different observations. Learning this structure has the potential to not only improve the prediction performance, but it can also reveal important patterns in the data. For example, given an econometric dataset, we could identify interesting dependencies between different market sectors; given a meteorological dataset, we could identify regional weather patterns. In this work we propose a new class of RTRBM, which explicitly uses a dependency graph to model the structure in the problem and to define the energy function. We refer to the new model as the structured RTRBM (SRTRBM). Our technique is related to methods such as graphical lasso, which are used to learn the topology of Gaussian graphical models. We also develop a spike-and-slab version of the RTRBM, and combine it with our method to learn structure in datasets with real valued observations. Our experimental results using synthetic and real datasets, demonstrate that the SRTRBM can improve the prediction performance of the RTRBM, particularly when the number of visible units is large and the size of the training set is small. It also reveals the structure underlying our benchmark datasets.
Zhaoshi Meng and Brian Eriksson and Al Hero
Gaussian graphical models (GGM) have been widely used in many high-dimensional applications ranging from biological and financial data to recommender systems. Sparsity in GGM plays a central role both statistically and computationally. Unfortunately, real-world data often does not fit well to sparse graphical models. In this paper, we focus on a family of latent variable Gaussian graphical models (LVGGM), where the model is conditionally sparse given latent variables, but marginally non-sparse. In LVGGM, the inverse covariance matrix has a low-rank plus sparse structure, and can be learned in a regularized maximum likelihood framework. We derive novel parameter estimation error bounds for LVGGM under mild conditions in the high-dimensional setting. These results complement the existing theory on the structural learning, and open up new possibilities of using LVGGM for statistical inference.