Recurrent Kalman Networks: Factorized Inference in High-Dimensional Deep Feature Spaces
Philipp Becker · Harit Pandya · Gregor Gebhardt · Cheng Zhao · C. James Taylor · Gerhard Neumann

Tue Jun 11th 03:15 -- 03:20 PM @ Room 201

In order to integrate uncertainty estimates into deep time-series modelling, Kalman Filters (KFs) (Kalman, 1960) have been integrated with deep learning models.
Yet, such approaches typically rely on approximate inference techniques such as variational inference which makes learning more complex and often less scalable due to approximation errors. We propose a new deep approach to Kalman filtering which can be learned directly in an end-to-end manner using backpropagation without additional approximations. Our approach uses a high-dimensional factorized latent state representation for which the Kalman updates simplify to scalar operations and thus avoids hard to backpropagate, computationally heavy and potentially unstable matrix inversions. Moreover, we use locally linear dynamic models to efficiently propagate the latent state to the next time step. The resulting network architecture, which we call Recurrent Kalman Network (RKN), can be used for any time-series data, similar to a LSTM (Hochreiter & Schmidhuber, 1997) but uses an explicit representation of uncertainty. As shown by our experiments, the RKN obtains much more accurate uncertainty estimates than an LSTM or Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) (Cho et al., 2014) while also showing a slightly improved prediction performance and outperforms various recent generative models on an image imputation task.

Author Information

Philipp Becker (Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence, University of Tübingen)
Harit Pandya (University of Lincoln)
Gregor Gebhardt (TU Darmstadt)
Cheng Zhao (Birmingham University)
C. James Taylor (Lancaster University)
Gerhard Neumann (Lincoln University)

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