We introduce a new spatial data structure for high dimensional data called the approximate principal direction tree (APD tree) that adapts to the intrinsic dimension of the data. Our algorithm ensures vector-quantization accuracy similar to that of computationally-expensive PCA trees with similar time-complexity to that of lower-accuracy RP trees. APD trees use a small number of power-method iterations to find splitting planes for recursively partitioning the data. As such they provide a natural trade-off between the running-time and accuracy achieved by RP and PCA trees. Our theoretical results establish a) strong performance guarantees regardless of the convergence rate of the power-method and b) that $O(\log d)$ iterations suffice to establish the guarantee of PCA trees when the intrinsic dimension is $d$. We demonstrate this trade-off and the efficacy of our data structure on both the CPU and GPU.